Now some miscreants,
I request all of you to send mails to the above id.
Those who already sent mails to me may kindly foward them again to the
above ID so that I may give reply.
In Naimisaranya, on the occasion of Satra Yaga, Sooti told Saint Sounaka and other sages and saints, the story of Maha Bharata as told by Saint Vaisampayana to King Janamejaya.
After Bhishma explaining Vishnu Tatva, Dharmaja asked Bhishma thus: “O Grandsire Bhishma! what are the qualities for a bride groom to be looked into.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! In this connection, I tell you one story. There was a saint called Ashtavakra. He wanted to marry a girl called Suprabha, daughter of Vadaanya. Ashtavrakra asked Vadaanya to give his daugher in marriage to him. Vadaanya accepted his proposal and told him thus:
“O Ashtavakra! You proceed towards North. After crossing the abode of Kubera, on northern side, there are Himalayas where Parvati did penance for the sake of Siva. Even now, Lord Siva and Parvati are moving there together. After crossing that place, you find one Neepa Garden where you find a middle aged woman. You meet her and come back. Then I perform your marriage with my daughter.” said Vadaanya.
Ashtavakra accordingly proceeded towards north. First he arrived at the city of Kubera. Kubera received him with due honors and arranged dance programme with beautiful dancers. Those dances could not attract Ashtavakra. Then he entered Himalayas and arrived at the Neepa forest. In the midst of the forest, there was a beautiful building made up of gold. Beautiful girls welcomed him. He went inside. There he found a middle aged lady. That lady took him into the inner apartments and made him to sit by her side on a bed.
It was cold during that night. They both laid side by side on the same bed. That night, the lady tried to seduce him but the body of Ashtavakra did not respond. It remained like a log. Then she told Ashtavakra:
“O young man! you are a man and manly. Generally men are attracted to sexual desires and happiness. But why you remained silent and did not respond inspite of my seduction.. I will part with all my riches. Take me as your wife. I will serve you throughtout my life.” said that lady.
“It is a great sin to have intercourse with another’s wife. A brahmin cannot have intercourse with a Sudra lady. I am still unmarried. I fell in love with a girl and I want to marry her.” said Ashtavakra.
“O young man! I also fell in love with you. For lovers, there are no bounds, They do not care for human relations. Marry me and enjoy these riches.” asked that lady.
“Why are you talking like this. I do not know whether ladies talk like this. Kindly control your temptations.Kindly leave me. I have to go.” said Ashtavakra.
“No No dont go. Remain here for some time.” that lady stopped him.
“If you do not touch me, I remain here” said Ashtavakra.
Next day morning, after morning rituals, Ashtavakra was about to leave that place.
“O young man! listen to me. I am also a virgin. As I could not get suitable match all these days, I remained unmarried. Fortunately, you have come. Kindly marry me.” requested that lady.
“During childhood, father; afer marriage, husband; during old age, son; are the protectors of a lady. Therefore, you are still dependent and you cannot marry without the permission of elders. Hence I reject your offer. Leave it. Who are you? Why you are seducing me like this. Kindly leave me. I have to go and marry my lover.” requested Ashtavakra.
Then she smiled and said: “O young man! At the command of Vadaanya, I tested your austerity and verocity. You have succeeded in the test. Vadaanya will give his daughter to you in marriage.” said that lady.
Then Ashtavakra saluted her and went back to his place. Ashtavakra married Suprabha and lived happily.
Therefore Dharmaja! before marriage, the character and conduct of the bridegroom shall be enquired into and tested thoroughly.” said Bhishma.
“O grandsire Bhishma! if a brahmin begets a son through a Sudra lady, how can he become a brahmin.” asked Dharmaja.
“ODharmaja! I tell you about the marriage conditions. A brahmin can marry another brahmin lady, or ladies in Kshatriya, Vysya and Sudra communtiies. Likewise, Kshatriya can marry another kshatriya lady and also ladies in vysya and sudra communties. A vysya can marry another vysya lady and also a lady in sudra community. A sudra shall marry only a sudra lady and none else. This is marriage system. If anybody marries a lady in upper castes than his own caste, it leads to intermixture of castes.
To whatever caste mother belongs, caste of the child is decided by the caste of father only. This system is accepted in general. Even if the sages and saints beget children through ladies in lower castes, they will be treated as brahmins. Even if a kshatriya begets children through lower communties, they will be treated Kshatriyas. There are instances, which you might have heard, where some brahmins begot children through cattle and birds. Those children were treated as Brahmins. Therefore, for Brahmins and Kshatriyas, the seed is important but not the field. The births of Vasishta, Rushyasrunga, Agastya, Vyasa, sons of Mandapala, Drona, Kripa are best examples. All of them inherited their fahter’s caste.
In this connection, Manu said thus: “ One shall not comment about the origins or births of rivers, sidhas and sages and saints. Why because, great people are renowned by their character, conduct, virtuous deeds but not by their origin or caste.” said Bhishma.
“O Bhishma! Worthiness or fitness of a brahmin to receive alms and charity from others is decided either by his brahminism or by sainthood.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! A brahmin, by virtue of his good deeds, is considered fit to receive alms from others. It is immaterial whether he is a saint or household.”said Bhishma.
“O grandsire!One does not attain any sin by performing Daana (charity). Is it not?” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! It is correct. The charities made with devotion vanish all sins. But who is preaching Dharmas to others but wretch and wicked inside, is not fit to receive any charity. In this connection, there was a discussion between Mother Earth, Saint Kashyapa and Saint Markandeya. Whatever caste he was born, whatever be his knowledge and intelligence, without virtues and character, he may not attain higher regions after death. If an intelligent and educated belittles other’s education and intelligence,he will be tainted with the sin of Brahma Hatya. If the fruits of thousand Yajnas and truthfulness is put in scales, truthfulness weighs more than the fruits of thousand Yajnas. If one abstains from consuming meat and alcohol, it is greater than observing brahmacharya throughout life. Controlling sense organs while moving in the outside world is called Soucha.”said Bhishma.
“O grandsire Bhishma! we are heard about the four Purusha Ardhas viz., Dharma, Ardha, Kama and Moksha. Tell me when and how to observe them?” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! One has to discard Ardha and Kama and follow Dharma and Moksha. One should always incline to follow Dharma. One may have inclination to follow ardha(earning money) and kaama(enjying sensual pleasures) but to limited extent only. Dharma shall be observed during day time and Kama shall be observed during night time and Ardha shall be observed during dawn.
One attains Punya by worshipping Guru and Brahmin. Accusing brahmins and obstructing them from studying Vedas and performing worship of Agni are great sins.” said Bhishma.
“O Grandsire! I could not follow what you said earlier. Kindly tell who are fit to receive alms and charities from others.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! The persons with the following qualities are fit to give alms and make charities. Those who observe Dharma; those who do not have anger, those who speak truth always, those who are with vigour and valour; those who discharge the duties entrusted to them scrupulously, those who control their sense organs; those who are kind towards fellow creatures; those who are not greedy and covetous; and those who observe Soucha are entitled to make charities.
Those who study vedas and scriptures are eligible to receive alms from the above. But one should not give away alms to those who are not fit to receive. If one virtuous brahmin is satisfied with the charity he made, all deities, pitaras and sages satisfy. One should worship divine bodies during morning, deities during noon time and pitaras during evening times.
Dharmaja! food prepared four hours earlier; spoiled food, food partly consumed by others; food that is not offered to God; food containing small insects and hair is prohibited to be consumed. One should protect the money and articles collected for worshipping divine bodies and pitaras, safely. One who earns money by giving money for interest; one who does not perform worship of Agni; one who indulges in flesh trade are not fit for Pitara ceremonies.” said Bhishma.
“O grandisre Bhishma! kindly tell me who are eligible to receive alms and charities during divine worhip and Pitara worship.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! those who constantly worship and offer food to guests, those who lost their money and property due to thefts; those who are inclined to perform Vratas but do not have money; those who are experiencing troubles without money to feed their own parents, wife and children; those who are suffering without money to cure their diseases; are eligible to receive alms and charities during divine ceremonies and pitara ceremonies.
Those who are indulged in destroying choultries, pandals, etc, those who always blame their teachers; those who accuse Vedas; thosewho sell their knowledlge of Vedas; those who are indulged in carrying tales against others; those who are guilty of breach of contracts; those who exploit others for their own ends; those who have no gratitude for the help done by others; those who seduce others’ wives; those who destroy Mantra Sastras; those who are blind with pride and arrogance; those who deceive orphans, children, aged and sanyasis; those who consume food without offering to his servants, guests, wife and children, will certainly go to hell.
Trading in lethal weapons and hair; killing virgin girls, brahmins and cows; abandoning Guru and faithful servant; putting hurdles and thorn bushes across the streets used by villagers: are all nothing but gateways for hell. Besides the above, a king who punishes people for offences which they have not committed; a king, whose aowed object is to protect people, forgets his responsibility towards his people; people who are guilty of cheating and criminal breach of trust; will certainly to go hell .
Those who engage in constructing choultries, raising gardens, digging drinking water wells, rescuing those who are in need and danger, performing marriages, donating land as charity, donating vehicles for handicapped; providing labour at free of cost; forgiving those who caused harm to him; regarding wife and children and relatives; not giving much publicity for the donations made; keeping aloof from wicked and greedy; are all the gateways for heaven.”said Bhishma.
“O Grandisre Bhishma! we regard certain acts as Brahma Hatya Patakas. Without violence, how can they be regarded as murders (hatya).”asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! I asked Veda Vyasa the same question. I tell you the reply given by Veda Vyasa. Inviting Brahmins for food but depriving them of food; obstructing a Brahmin to study Vedas; obstructing cows from drinking water in ponds; embezzlement of funds intended for physically handicapped; accusing Vedas and scriptures; are all equivalent to Brahma Hatya. Burning villages; destroying fruit bearing gardens; giving false evidence in courts; are also equivalent to Brahma hatya. Not performing the marriage of a girl with a suitable bridegroom also is equivalent to Brahma Hatya.” said Bhishma.
“O Grandisre Bhishma! Kindly let me know about pilgrimage to holy places.” asked Dharmaja.
“Dharmaja! I now tell you what has been told by Angirasa to Goutama.
Who observe fasting on the banks of River Chandrabhaga
and Vitasta will be equivalent to a saint. Who drinks water in the rivers
flowing in Kashir attains heaven. Who takes holy bath in Pushkara tirtha,
Prabhasa Tirtha, Naimisaranya, Indramarga, devika and Svargabindu attains
the companionship of apsarasas. Who observes fasting on the banks of
Rivers Indra Toya and Karatoya and takes holy bath, they attain the
fruits of performing Asvamedha Yaga.
Who takes holy bath in Vaimanika Tirtha, he attains heaven. Who serves Krittika and Angaraka, he attains Svargaloka. Who takes holy bath for three days in River Vipasa, he does not have next birth. Who offers Pitara Tarpana in Krittika Ashram, he attains the presence of Lord Siva. Who visits Dronasarma and Sarastambha thirthas and Devadaru Vana, they are blessed with beautiful wives.
Who visits Chitrakuta and Janasthana, he attains royal pleasures. Who observes fasting for one month in Shyama Ashram, they attain the fruits of inward thinking. Whoever spends 21 days in silence without food, he attains moksha. Who spends one night in Matanga Vaapi, he becomes Sidha. Who stays in Naimisaranya for one month he attains the fruits of performing Purushamedhi.Who takes bath on Kalanjana mountain at Prayaga, he attains liberation.
Who takes bath in Vaivasvata Thirtha, he gets enormous
wealth. Who spends one month in Prayaga, he attains Moksha. Who observes
fasting for one month at Brahma Kapala, he attains Chandraloka.Who takes
holy bath in Ashtavakra, Kalavinka, Devahrada, he attains Brahma Loka.
Fasting for 12 days in Ramahrada vanishes all sins. Who takes holy bath
in River Narmada will have royal birth. Who stays 91 days in Jamboo
Dveepa, he attains all Siddhis.
O Dharmaja! while making pilgrimages, one should keep his mind peaceful, uninfluenced by anger, greediness and pride. Then only he attains the fruits of pilgrimages.
Dharmaja! in fact, all the Thirdhas and holy places are in our body. Controlling sense organs, performing Tapas and controlling mind are equal to visiting holy places. Without purity of mind, taking holy bath in rivers is nothing but taking bath everyday. It only cleans the body but not the mind.
O Dharmana! without worrying for the things which we do not have; without developing more affection on which we have; if one controls his sense organs, he need not visit any holy place or take any holy dip in any river. Such people remain purified always. One need not visit, all the way, all the Thirthas and holy places by spending money and time. It is sufficient if he feels visiting those places in his mind. This is what all I know about holy places and their visits.” said Bhishma.
Meanwhile, Saints Athri, Vasishta, Bhrigu, Pulaha, Pulastya, Kratuvu, Angirasa, Agasthya, Kanva, Goutama, Visvamitra, Jamadagni etc. arrived there to equire about the welfare of Bishma. Pandavas saluted them and offered them Arghyam and Padyam and due seats.After talking to Bhishma for a while all those saints departed. Again Dharmaja continued his questioning.
“O Grandsire! You told me so many places of visit and so many rivers to have a holy dip. Kindly tell me in brief which are the holiest places amongst them.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! in this connection I tell you a
story. A sidha visited the house of a poor brahmin as guest. The Brahmin
worshipped the guest and offered him food according to his might. After
taking food, while Sidha was taking rest, the Brahmin asked Sidha the
same question. The sidha answered thus:
Even performing one hundred Chandrayana Vratas is
not equal to consuming Ganga Water. Human beings regard Ganga water
as Amrutha. Rubbing the sand of Ganga on head and taking holy dip in
Ganga removes all his sins. Even the air coming from Ganga is suffient
to vanish all the sins. A holy dip in Ganga attains higher regions to
Pitaras. While taking bath in any place, feeling in mind that he is
taking bath in River Ganga, is suffient to attain the fruits of holy
dip in Ganga.
Whoever worships Ganga with devotion, he will be blessed with all riches and at last liberation. O brahmin! This much I know about Ganga” said the Sidha to Brahmin.
Dharmaja! this is the answer to your question.” said Bhishma to Dharmaja.
“O Bhishma! amongst all, who are fit to be worshipped. Kindly tell me. “ asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! once Sri Krishna asked Narada: “O Narada! whom do you salute with greatg devotion.”
Narada replied thus: “Krishna! with great devotion, I salute those people who worship the five elements, Eesaana, Shanmukha, Mahalakshmi, Vishnu, Brahma, Brihaspati, Chandra, water, and earth. I also salute those who study Vedas; who perform Tapas; who worship divine bodies; who give away land, money, grains, cows, as charity to poor and needy; who worship guests; who offer Tarpanas to Pitaras; who lead peaceful life; and who speak truth always.
I salute those who treat Dharma, Ardha, Kama equally; who do not have egoism and overaffection; who possess virtues; and who discarded greediness. Dharmaja! this is the answer to your question.” said Bhishma.
“O Grandisre Bhishma! For a king who rules the kingdom, there are several duties and responsibilities. Amongst them which is the prime duty.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! the prime duty of a King is to worship Brahmins. Where the Brahmins live peacefully, such country flourishes with riches. Where the Brahmins are insulted, such places be subjected to all troubles. Brahmins are capable of blessing as well as cursing. Brahmins do not care even Devendra. In the past, Dravida Kings insulted Brahmins and were cursed to become Sudras. Whoever worships a Brahmin and offers him food, his Pitaras attain higher regions.
Once mother earth told Vishnu thus: All sins of humans vanish by worshipping brahmins. Dharmaja! you also worship brahmins always. Brahmins by birth are to be worshipped. At the inception, after creating Brahmins, Brahma told them: “You are created to uphold Dharma. You have to protect Dharma always. That is your duty. You should stand as a role model to other castes. Constant study of Vedas, worshipping agni, are your prime duties. Kshatriyas obey your orders.” said Brahma.
In this connection I tell you the conversation between Indra and Sambara. Sambara Asura was the son of Jatasura. He was in a glorified state. Once Indra went to Sambara and asked him the reason for his glory. Sambaarasura said thus: “I have no angry or jealousy against brahmins. I alwlays try to protect brahmins and worship them. In the Devaasura Yuddha, Divine bodies were victorious only due to the blessings of brahmins. In that connection my father told Chandra that due to the blessings of brahmins, divine bodies were victorious. Then Chandra told my father thus: “Brahmins study vedas and perform Tapas always. A brahmin goes to any extent to serve his guru and study vedas. Then Brahmins perform Tapas. Studying Vedas and performing Tapas are the duties of a Brahmin. Hence brahmins are regarded to be greater than all.”
Having heard thatconversion between my father and Chandra, I started worshipping Brahmins. Hence I am now in a glorious status. Indra! you also worship brahmins and be glorious.” said Sambarasura.
Dharmaja! you also worship brahmins always.” said Bhishma.
“O GrandsireBhishma! amongst nearest and distant, who are to be regarded as best.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! All friends, relatives. Ritviks, purohits, whether they are nearest or distant, if they do not possess anger and jealousy, they are to be regarded as best of all. Besides that, amongst distant and unknown, if they are virtuous, learned and respectable, they are to be worshipped.” said Bhishma.
“O Bhishma! I heard that ladies are the root cause for committing all kinds of sins. Kindly tell me the reason for such saying.” asked Dharmaja.
“Dharmaja! what you said is correct. Ladies
are of that nature. In this connection, I tell you conversation between
Narada and an apsara called Panchachooda. While going round the universe,
Narada met one Apsara called Panchachooda.
“O great saint! Kindly ask. I answer your question as far as my knowledge goes.” said Panchachooda.
“Kindly tell me the nature of ladies?” asked Narada.
“O Narada! I am also a lady. How can a lady complains against another lady.” retarded Panchachooda.
“O Pancha Chooda! It is not like that. If you tell the truth, you are not tainted with any sin.” said Narada.
“O Saint Narada! You are well aware of the ladies and their nature and behaviour. Because you asked me, I tell. A married lady, though born in upper caste and respectable family, still lusts for other males other than her husband. This is the peculiar nature of a woman. Ladies are root cause for all kinds of sins. Women cannot realise the goodness of men. Ladies always praise other men before husband. It is highly impossible to control women, unless they are punished severely. A woman generally does not satisfy with her husband and craves for other men.” said Pancha Chooda. Narada was satisfiedwith that answer.
Dharmaja! this is the answer for your question.” said Bhishma.
“O Grandisre! in such a case, how to protect our ladies?” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! Ladies are more intelligent and tactful. At the inception, ladies were virtuous and were true to their husbands. Hence, they attained divinity. Beholding that, divine bodies were jealous. All of them went to Brahma and complained about the virtues of ladies in humans. Then Brahma created deception and secrecy as their natural qualities.Besides that, Brahma instilled lust in ladies in greater proportion. Hence men have become prey to their lust and deception. Men fought huge battles for the sake of ladies. As a result, the divinity in men diminished. Divine bodies were satisfied. As ladies are created with deception and secrecy, it is very difficult for men to know their minds.
In this connection, there was an ancient story. In the past, there was a saint called Devasarma. His wife, Ruchi, was a very beautiful lady. Devendra fell in love with that lady. At that time, Deva Sarma had to attend a Yaga. He called his Sishya, called Vipula.
“Vipula! You know that my wife, Ruchi, is a most beautiful lady. Devendra lusted her and is waiting for an opportunity. So far I have been protecting my wife from the wicked plans of Indra. Now I have to attend a Yaga. Devendra is always in the habit of lusting others’ wives. In my absence, he may fulfil his desire. Therefore, in my absence, you have to protect my wife from Indra.” asked Deva Sarma.
“O Guru! I will certainly do that. But how to know the tricks and illusions of Indra.” asked Vipula.
“Vipula! you are right. Indra may come in the form of even birds or beasts or in invisible form. You have to use your intelligence and yogic powers to retaliate his tricks.” said Deva Sarma. Then Deva Sarma went away. Vipula was guarding the wife of Deva Sarma.
Meanwhile, Vipula hatched up a plan. With his yogic power, Vipula entered the body of Ruchi. As Vipula was in her body, she lost consciousness. Meanwhile, Devendra arrived there. Body of Vipula was lying at a distance. Devendra thought that he was sleeping. Devendra came near Ruchi and patted her.
“O dear. I have come. Look at me. Dont feel shy. None are here. Vipula is sleeping. Let us enjoy together. Take me into your arms and hug me with passion.” Indra was requesting her.
As she was unconscious, she did not give any reply. From her body, Vipula spoke to Indra: “O Indra! She could not talk. She is unconscious.” Indra was afraid of Vipula. Vipual came out of the body of Ruchi and entered his body. Through his body he spoke to Indra.
“O Indra! Though you were once cursed by Goutama for lusting his wife, Ahalya, you have not learnt any lesson. You are again repeating the same sin. Are you not wise? Being Devendra, cannot you control your sense organs. Is your mind so wicked? You wretch! why you are commtting this kind of sin, lusting other’s wife. If it is known to my Guru, you will be reduced to ashes. Take care.” said Vipula.
Devendra could realise the yogic powers of Vipula. Again Vipula said: “I myself would have reduced you to ahses. Without permission of my Guru, I cannot do this. You are saved. Get out.” ordered Vipula. Devendra fled away with fear.
On arrival of Deva Sarma, Vipula told him what had happened but did not reveal about his entering into body of Ruchi. Later, on one day, while Ruchi was moving in front of Ashram, an Apasarasa was flying in the sky with a divine garland in her hand. Accidentally, that divine garland slipped from her hand and fell upon Ruchi, the wife of Deva Sarma. Ruchi picked up that garland and was astonished for its beauty and freshness.
Meanwhile, King Chitra Radha, King of Vanga arrived there. It so happened that the wife of Chitra Radha and Ruchi are own sisters. Hence Chitra Radha arrived there to invite Deva Sarma and Ruchi for a function to be held in his palace. Accordingly Deva Sarma and Ruchi attended that function. Ruchi adorned herself with that garland while going to that function. Beholding that garland, Ruchi’s sister amazed and asked her sister about its availability. Ruchi replied that those flowers are available in their garden and asked her husband, Deva sarma, to bring such flowers. In turn, Deva Sarma ordered Vipula to bring such flowers.
Vipula enquired Ruchi about that garland and went in search of it. With his yogic power, Vipula got those flowers. While Vipula was returning back, he met a wife and husband quarrelling with each other.
Wife challenged her husband: “If I am at fault, I will attain the lower regions as Vipula may get in the other world.”. Having heard those words, Vipula was not perturbed and proceeded further.
On the way, six gamblers were quarrelling with other other. One challenged the other five gamblers: “If I am at fault, I will meet the same fate as that of Vipula in the other world.”.
Then Vipula thought for himself. He remembered that he did not tell his Guru about his entering the body of Ruchi, with his yogic powers, as a result, he might have attained some sin. He proceeded to Vanga kingdom where Deva Sarma and Ruchi are staying. Vipula gave that garland to Ruchi. She was very happy.
Then Deva Sarma called Vipula to a side and said thus: “O Vipula! while you were coming back, you might have heard the conversations between a husband and wife and also six gamblers. They blamed you. Do you know who are they?” asked Deva Sarma.
“No” said Vipula.
“While rescuing my wife from Devendra, you entered the body of my wife. But you did not reveal that fact to me. They might have thought that you committed a sin. If really it was a sin, I would have cursed you on that day itself. But I praised you. The wife and husband are day and night. The six gamblers are six seasons.
Human beings commit both virtuous deeds as well as sins day in and day out. Bad and wicked think that they are commiting wrongs without the knowledge of others, which is nothing but their ignorance. Day and night and six seasons constantly observe what they are doing. Protecting a lady is very difficult. Diligently, you saved my wife. In fact you did a very good thing. Not revealing that fact to me is not at all a sin.” said Deva Sarma.
Therefore, Dharmaja! there are several kinds of ladies. There may be good and bad. There are several virtuous ladies who worship their husbands more than God. Due to their existence only, this earth is rotating in a disciplined way. There is no doubt that husband gets name and fame due to the virtuousness of his wife.” said Bhishma.
“O Grandsire Bhishma! while searching bridegroom for a bride, what are the precautions to be taken by the father of the bride.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! Father shall go in search of a bridegroom born in high class, having virtues and good education and then give away his daughter to that bridegroom by pouring water in his hand. This is called Brahmin marriage.
In Kshatriya type of marriages, bride herself choose her life partner which is called Svavamvara. That man also develops love and affection towards that bride. Love develops between them. It is called Kshatra type of marriage.
If a girl looks at a boy and satisfies herself, with his figure, attitude and behaviour, the marriage between them is called Gandharva.
A marriage involving money as consideration is called Asuric.
With a desire on a girl, if a person kills the parents and relations of that girl and abducts her cruelly and marries her is called Rakshasa type of marriage.
Therefore, marriages are of five types. The first three are according to Dharma. The last two viz., Asura and Raksha are against Dharma and blameworthy. A girl without parents and brothers is not fit for marriage.
A brahmin may marry girls in his own caste and also
in Kshatriya and Vysya castes. Brahmins are barred to marry sudra lady
and beget children through her.A Kshatriya shall first marry a girl
in his own caste and then marry a girl from Vysya caste. But Vysyas
and Sudras shall marry girls from their own castes only. Inter caste
marriages in Vysyas and Sudras is prohibited. In some peculiar circumstances,
Kshatriyas and Sudras may marry girls in Sudra community, but very rarely.”
“O Dharmaja! only in peculiar circumstances, it may happen. Out of love and affection towards a Sudra Girl or out of greediness to grab the property of Sudra girl, a brahmin marries a Sudra girl. The only difference is that the children born to a brahmin through brahmin, kshatriya and Vysya girls are regarded as brahmins but the children of a brahmin through Sudra girl is not considered as brahmins.” said Bhishma.
Now Dharmaja entertained a doubt. “O Grandsire! what about the rights in the property of a brahmin. How the property of a brahmin is divided amongst the children born to a brahmin through the girls of four communities.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! the following is the procedure. First the property of a brahmin is divided into ten parts. First four parts go to the children born through brahmin woman. Next three parts go to the children born through Kshatriya woman. Next two parts go to the children born through Vysya woman. Remaining one part goes to the children born through Sudra woman. But the child born through Sudra woman shall not claim his share as of right and shall not quarrel with the other childlren born through the girls of brahmin, kshatriya and Vysya communities. He may receive his due share if it is given to him out of love and affection. In the same manner, the children born to a brahmin through brahmin, kshatriya and vysya communties, shall not deprive the children born to a sudra woman, of their due share. This is the rule of partition of the properties of a brahmin.” said Bhishma.
“O Grandisire! kindly enlighten me about the partition of properties of other castes.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! the property of Kshatriya shall first be divided into eight shares. The first four shares shall go to the children born through Kshatriya woman. The next three shares go to the children born through Vysya woman. The remaining single share goes to the children born through Sudra woman.
The proerty of Vysya shall first be divided into five shares. The first four shares go to the children born through Vysya woman. The remaining share goes to children born to Sudra woman.
In all these cases, the children born to Sudra woman shall not claim the share as of right but receive it, if it is given out of love and affection. Similarly, the children of upper castes shall not deprive the children born to Sudra woman, of their due share in the property. This is the general rule of partition.
As Sudra marries girls of his own caste, the entire property of Sudra goes to his children born to Sudra woman, in equal shares.
All the Vaidika duties, bathing, eating etc., in a combined family shall be done by brahmin women only. The women of other castes have no right to do such duties.” said Bhishma.
“O Grandsire! kindly tell me the different categories in children born through girls of different communities.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! a child born to a duly and validly married man and woman, in his own caste, is called Ourasa. He is the elder son and Kartha of the family.
If anybody is issueless, he can adopt the son of his daughter (douhitra) with the permission of his son in law and daughter. Such adopted son shall have all rights over the property as a natural son.
If any married couple has no issues, the wife, with
the permission of her husband, may have sexual intercourse with another
virtuous man and beget children. Such children are called Kshetraja
and they are also regarded as the natural sons of that married couple.
If any parents gives away their son by pouring water into other’s hands, it is called adoption and he is called Datrima. He is also called Dattaka. (adopted son).
If any man or woman adopts orphans and treats them as his/her own sons, they are called Kritrimas.
If any man begets children through another married woman, other than his wife, he is called Goodhaja. Those children are regarded as the natural sons of her original husband.
If any parents, unable to feed their own children, leave them to their fate, and if such children are brought up by another man and woman, those children are called Apaviddha.
If an unmarried girl gives birth to a child, such child is called Kaaneena. After her marriage, that child is considered to be the legitimate son of her legally wedded husband.
If a girl is pregnant by the time of her marriage, and the child born after marriage is called Sahodha. The man who marries that pregnant girl, even without the knowledge of her pregnancy at the time of marriage, shall regard that child as his own legitimate child. A woman who deserted her husband and a woman who was deserted by her husband, gives birth to a child, he is called Pounarbhava. The person who caused the pregnancy shall be the legitimate father of that child.
An orphan (child without parents) gives himself in adoption to others, he is called Svayam Datta.
If any parents sell their child to others for money, that child is called Kreeta.
O Dharmaja! these twelve categories of children are legitimate in character. But Ourasa is only entitled to perform the funeral ceremonies and obsequies of his parents.” said Bhishma.
“O Grandsire! tell me about the friendship arise out of exchange of looks and living together.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! in this connection, the conversation between Chyavana and Nahusha is pertinent. Saint Chyavana was born in Bhrigu clan. He was performing tapas, in deep waters, at the confluence of Ganga and Yamuna. The fish in deep waters were swimming around him and Chyavana was enjoying the soft and smooth touch of the fish. Chyavana was in Samadhi for twelve years.
One day some fishermen came there to catch fish. They threw their nets. Along with fish, Chyavana was caught in the fish net. Fishermen dragged Chyavana out of waters. Beholding Chyavana, they were afraid. They fell on his feet and prayed mercy.
“You are not at fault. As I am living along with fish, I was caught. Take me also to your king and he will reward you” said Chyavana.
The fishermen were more afraid. They immediately went to King Nahusha and explained the position. King Nahusha, along with his ministers and purohits hurriedly came there and fell on the feet of Chyavana.
“O saint! our fishermen committed a great blunder. Kindly forgive them and tell me the expiation for their mistake.” prayed the King.
“O King Nahusha! catching fish is their nature and dharma. They are not at fault. With great difficulty they caught the fish along with me. Kingly reward them suitably. Fix my rate also and pay them.” said Chyavana.
Immediately, King Nahusha ordered to pay one thousand gold coins to those fishermen.
“O king! is my value only one thousand coins? think and pay.” asked Chyavana.
Nahusha ordered to pay one lakh gold coins.
“Only one lakh coins. No. No. think again and tell” said Chyavana.
King Nahusha became obstinate. “Give them half of my kingdom in lieu of Saint Chyavana and other fish caught by them.” ordered Nahusha.
Chyavana smiled and said: “That much! tell another word.”
“If so, I part with my entire kingdom” said Nahusha.
“No No. do one thing. better consult your ministers and fix the rate for me and the fish” said Chyavana.
“I have given away my entire kingdom. What remains with me to give” said Nahusha.
Meanwhile, saint Avijata arrived there. Nahusha told the saint the problem he was facing in fixing the rate for fish and saint.
“King Nahusha! dont worry. I myself fix the rate for saint Chyavana. O King Nahusha! Brahmin and cow belong to one community. But Brahma created brahmin and cow differently. Cow milk and milk products are essential during the performance of Yajna and Yaga. To perform Yajna or Yaga, Brahmin is essential as Purohit. As both brahmin and cow are quite essential for performance of yajna and Yaga, they belong to one community.
As Brahmin is wise and learned, studying Vedas and scriptures, it is highly difficult to fix a rate for a brahmin. As cow is equivalent to brahmin, you can give a cow in lieu of Chyavana.” said saint Avijata.
King Nahusha was very happy for finding a solution to the problem. “O saint Chyavana! I will give a cow to the fishermen equivalent to you.” said Nahusha.
Chyavana smiled and said: “O Nahusha! Cow is
fire; cow is Amrutha. During performance of Yajna, cow occupies a highest
pedestal. Cow is a ladder to attain heaven. Cow is sacred even to divine
bodies. Hence you can give a cow instead of me.” said Chvayana.
“O grandsire Bhishma! It is amazing that in a virtuous brahmin community, Parasurama, with Kshatriya qualities was born and in a ferocious kshatriya community, a virtuous brahmin, Visvamitra, was born. How was it possible?” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! in this connection I tell you a story. There was a brahmin called Chyavana. Chyavana learnt that due to Kusika race which was a Kshatriya community, his virtuous brahmin community was going to be polluted. Hence he decided to cause harm to Kusika race.
Then he went to King Kusika. King Kusika welcomed him and offered him Arghyam and Padyam and due seat. Then Chyavana told Kusika: “Oking! I am performing a vrata. Yourself and your wife shall serve me.” asked Chyavana. King Kusika gladly agreed for his request. King Kusika provided Chyavana a place for stay with all amenities.
After taking food, Chyavana was taking rest. King
Kusika and his wife were pressing his feet. Chyavana was sleeping. Chyavana
slept for 21 days. Without food and sleep, Kusika and his wife served
the saint. On 22nd day, Chyavana woke up and went away of his own accord.
Kusika and his wife followed him. Chyavana disappeared on the outskirts
of the city. Beholding this Kusika and his wife fainted. After some
time, they regained consciousness and returned back to their palace.
To their surprise, they found the saint on his bed sleeping as usual.
Kusika and his wife again started to press his feet.
Next day morning, Chyavana appeared before them. Chyavana told King Kusika: “OKing Kusika! Make your chariot ready. Yourself and your wife shall pull the chariot. I sit in the chariot and distribute gold, silver, diamonds, cows etc. to the poor.
Accordingly, King Kusika made Chyavana to sit on the chariot, and they were pulling the chariot. Chyavana was beating both the king and his wife with hunter. He was distributing gold, diamonds, cows etc to poor. For several days both king and queen were pulling the chariot, receiving the hunter blows. Their bodies drenched with blood. The people living in the city began to curse the saint for his rude and inhuman behaviour. But both king and queen were bearing the torture.
At last they reached the outskirts of the city. Then saint Chyavana god down the chariot. With smiling face, saint Chyavana touched the bodies of both king and queen. Surprisingly, all the wounds caused by the hunter healed and their bodies were shining as usual.“O King and queen! you are tired. Go and take rest. Tomorrow I complete my Vrata on the banks of Ganga. Tomorrow you come to me.” said Chyavana. After prostrating before Chyavana, both king and queen went back to their palace.
Next day morning, King Nahusha and his queen went to the banks of Ganga where they found a beautiful palace. They entered the palace. On one side, Veda chanting was going on. On other side, singing, dancing were performed. There are beautiful gardens with fruit bearing trees, small hillocks, ponds with lotus flowers inside the building. Divine bodies, Gandharvas, Apsaras were moving here and there. King Nahusha and his wife astonished whether it is real or dream. They never experienced that in their life. They are in delusion whether they were in earth or heaven.
At one place, they found saint Chyavana sleeping in a bed. When King Nahusha and his wife approached him, he disappeared. Along with him, the beautiful building and heavenly plealsures disappeared. They were standing on the banks of Ganga in a forest. They found Saint Chyavana sitting under a tree, meditating.
King Nahusha told his wife: “This is nothing but the yogic power of Saint Chyavana. Men can acquire kingdoms but not brahminism and tapas. Out of his yogic power only. he can create all these wonders.” said King Nahusha.
Saint Chyavana opened his eyes and called them near. Both of them prostrated before saint Chyavana. “O King Nahusha! yourself and your wife got enormous control over sense organs. Otherwise, you would not have tolerated the physical and mental torture caused by me. I am very happy. Choose whatever you like!” said saint Chyavana.
“O Saint! There is nothing more to choose except serving you. But tell me one thing. Several unusual wonders happened after your arrival. What was the reason? Kindly tell me.” asked King Nahusha.
“O King Nahusha! Once I was present in the assembly consisting of Brahma, divine bodies, saints etc. Then, Brahma opined that brahmin race viz., Bhrigu race may intermix with Kusika Vamsa which is Kshatriya race, thus causing intermixture of Brahmin and Kshatriya communities. Having heard those words, I could not digest the intermixture of Brahmin and Kshatriya communities. I tend to destroy the Kusika race.
At that time, you were heading Kusika race. Hence I came to you and caused all kinds of troubles and torture to you, so that you may retaliate against me, in which event I may curse you with total destruction. Surprisingly, yourself and your wife did not say a single word, against my will. You have not lost your courage. You were not angry against me. You have smoothly refused to receive any boon from me. I am very much satisfied with your tolerance and virtues. Hence I made you to experience the heaven on earth.
I realised that you like more brahminism than Kshatra. Now I tell you the future. In your third generation, a virtuous brahmin will born in your race. Now choose whatever you like!” asked Chyavana.
“O saint Chyavana! Bless me and my children and grand children with brahminism and virtuous life.” prayed King Nahusha.
“King Nahusha! it will be done. Your grnad son will be regarded as Brahmarshi in all the three lokas.” said saint Chyavana.
Now King Nahusha entertained a doubt. “O saint! How is it possible. Tell me” asked Nahusha.
“O Nahusha! in my race, one Ruchika will born. He will marry your grand daughter. Through your grand daugher, Ruchika will beget Saint Jamadagni. Jamadagni will master Dhanurveda and teach the same to his son Rama. Rama, with his knowledge in Dhanurvda, destroys the entire Kshatriya community. This is all nothing but face. Due to fate only, the Yajna Pots are interchanged, as a result Brahmin Rama adopts Kshatra, and Kshatriya Visamitra adopts Brahminism. The word of Brahma will thus be fulfilled in this manner. But this intermixture of Brahmin and Kshatriya races will be acclaimed by one and all.” said saint Chyavana. Then Saint Chyavana went away on pilgrimage.
“O Dharmaja! this is the birth secret of Parasurama and Visvamitra.” said Bhishma.
“O Grandsire! kindly enlighten me about charities and their characteristics.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! if any body gives away a milching cow as charity to a virtuous brahmin, he will enjoy heavenly pleasures for number of years equal to the hair of that cow. Bride, land, house, gold, vehicles, rice, water, clothes, cots, seats, etc. are fit to be given in charity to virtuous brahmins,. But, if anybody comes for charity, if his need is fulfilled with affection, that is considered to be greatest of all. Giving Abhaya (promise to save) to a person with fear, is best of all.
Giving away his life during war is also glorious. Helping a person who is suffering with poverty and unable to maintain his own wife and children, is a good quality. One has to search for a virtuous person who does not look at another lady other than his own wife; who are interested in performing Yajnas and Yagas; who obstructs desires and anger from entering into mind; for giving charity.” said Bhishma.
“O Bhishma! Is it good to make charity to a
person who approaches him or making charity unasked for , knowing the
mind of the other person.
“O Grandisre! making charity is equal to Yajna. Which kind of charity yields good results.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! giving away money, grains, cows, diamonds, land, water, food etc. to virtuous brahmins yields the result of performing Yajna. But amongst all charities, giving away land as charity is best of all. Because, all the other things viz., clothes, grains, diamonds etc. are products of land (earth). Giving away land as charity is equivalent to giving away all the above things as charity. The person who gives away land as charity enjoys heavenly pleasures as long as the earth exists. Even if one parts with small extent of land as charity, he will enjoy royal pleasures in his next birth.
If a Kshatriya dies in war, he will attain the fruits of Bhoodaana. Sins like Brahma Hatya will vanish by performing Bhoodaana. Whether the person who does Boodaana is a great sinner, that sin does not affect the land he gives. Bhoodaana is equivalent to Asvamedha. If land is given to a poor brahmin, unasked for, it gives immense fruits. While performing Yagas and Yajnas, Bhoodaana is compulsory. Even if an extent of land equivalent to cow’s skin, is given in charity, to a virtuous brahmin, it vanishes all the sins of the person who made that charity.
Even dying in war, worshipping Guru and performing virtuous deeds are not all equivalent to Bhoodaana. Once Bhoodevi (mother earth) said:
“Whoever desires pleasures on the earth and in heaven, he shall perform Bhoodaana. There is no Dharma equivalent to Boodana. I satisfy immensely if I am given in charity to others. If anybody obstructs Bhoodaana, I feel distressed. However wrongdoer he maybe, if he does Boodaana, I bless him with heavenly pleasures.” said mother earth.
O Dharmaja! in this connection I tell you the words of Brihaspati to Devendra. “O Devendra! Earth is called Ratna Garbha. (pregnant with diamonds). Whoever does Boodaana, he attains the fruits of giving horses, elephants, and girls in charity to others. Gold is extracted from earth. Hence, Bhoodaana is equivalent to Suvarna Daana. Kings generally commit sins while ruling the people Those sins vanish only by performing Bhoodaana. Whoever recovers the land once given as charity, he goes to hell. Whoever fails to keep the word of Bhoodaana, he attains greatest sin. If Bhoodaana is made unasked for, he gets Maha Punya.” said Brihaspati to Devendra.
Therefore, Dharmaja! you also perform Bhoodaana to your might.” said Bhishma.
“O Grandsire Bhishma! what are the articles fit to be given as charity.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! food, gold, water, are preferable to be given as charity. In the past, sages, divine bodies praise food (cooked rice). It is called Anna Daana. During Yajnas and Yagas, Anna (cooked rice) occupies prominent place. Therefore there is no charity greater than Anna Daana. In every auspicious occasion, Annadaana is compulsory. Our life depends on food. Even if we are deprived of food, we should offer food to guest. If a tired person, Tapasvi, boy, handicapped, lady......prays for food, the householder shall serve them food without getting angry. Offering food to a low caste people and even a dog with hunger, attains Maha Punya. It is a great act to offer food to saints, pitaras and divine bodies. To perform Anna daana, caste, education, profession do not come in our way. Not only to brahmins, Annadaana shall me made to all castes.
Next comes gold. It is called Suvarna daana. During the course of a Vrata, if Suvarnadaana is made, it increases the lifespan.
Next comes water. If water is supplied to those who are thirsty, it is greater than all charities. Charity of water means digging wells, tanks, and making use of that water for drinking purposes. Such people attain higher regions.
Next comes ghee. Ghee is used in all auspicious occasions and also in Yajnas and yagas. By giving away ghee to others, Agni and Yajnapurusha will satisfy. Giving pots, firewood, umbrellas, vehicles, chapals etc yields good results.
Gingelly seeds(Tila) are the food for Pitaras. If Gingelly seeds are given, all his sins will vanish. Tila Dana is greatest of all. Tila Dana is received by saints.
O Dharmaja! now I tell you about Godaana. (giving Cow as charity). Cows are greater than saints. Cows give us milk, curd, ghee which are quite essential for Yajnas. There is nothing unuseful in cow. Its skin, urine, shit, are all pure. Cow and Brahmin are equivals. Therefore, Godaana yileds liberation. Cow milk is equivalent to Amrutha. If Godaana is performed, it is equivalent to Amrutha Daana.
But Godana shall be made to those who are fit to receive. Cows are equivalent to our lives. Giving away cows means giving away our life. But Godan shall be made only to the fittest. If charities are made to cruel people and non-believers of God, he suffers eternal agony. Before making Godaan, one has to enquire thoroughly about the eligibility of person who receives it.
O Dharmaja! only healthy and milching cows shall be given in Godaan. Godaan is the only way for liberation. O Dharmaja! after Godaan, food and water occupy the next place. Annadaanaa (giving away cooked rice as charity) is best of all. Anna is called Amrutha in Deva Loka, Sudha in Nagaloka and Svadha in Pitara loka. Elders say that Anna is equal to our life. Therefore, Anna daanaa is equal to parting with our life.
Next comes water. Water is essential to cook rice. Chandra was born from water. Chandra protects all herbs on earth. Therefore, water is greater than food. Before consuming food, one has to offer food to divine bodies, pitaras, guests.
O Dharmaja! giving away Tilas (gingelly seeds) are also best. There is a small story with regard to Tila daana. In middle bharat, there was a village called Parnasala. In that villalge, a brahmin called Sarma was living. Oneday Yama called him and said: “amongst all Danas, Tiladaana is best because Pitaras like Tilas. Therefore, you make Tila daanaa to brahmins. Along with Tilas, you can give clothes, lamps also to brahmins.” said Yama to Sarma.
O Dharmaja! in a nutshell, I can say that Bhoodaana, Vidyaa daanaa and Godaanaa are best of all. If a teacher teaches his student well, it amounts to making Bhoodaana. Godaana also is equivalent to Bhoodaana. Who ever gives away cows with good intention as charity, he enjoys heavenly plelasures. Whoever makes Godaanaa with evil intention, he suffers misery.
In this connection, I tell you a story. In Dwaraka, there was a big well. In that well, there was a huge chameleon. One day, some people saw that chameleon. Thinking that it may spoil the drinking water, they wanted to take that chameleon out of the well with the help of big ropes. But they could not move it an inch. All of them went to Sri Krishna and complained him about the chameleon. Sri Krishna arrived at that place and saw the chameleon. Sri Krishna recognised it as King Nruga.
Beholding Sri Krishna, the chameleon came out of the well, of its own accord. “O Krishna! I am King Nruga.” chameleon introduced himself to Krishna. “Why you have taken this chameleon form. I heard you have given thousands of cows as charity. But why you are suffering like this. Is there any special reason.” asked Krishna.
“Yes Krishna. There is a reason. One day, I gave one cow to a brahmin as charity. That brahmin took away that cow to his house. Next day, he drove that cow to the nearby fields for grazing. By mistake, that cow mixed with the cows belonging to me and along with other cows, that cow also came down to our cattle sheds. Next day, I asked the cow herds to bring some cows for Godaan. Along with other cows, they brought this cow also which I have already given in charity. Not knowing that the cow has already been given in charity, I gave that cow to another brahmin. While the later was driving the cow to his house, the former attacked him and claimed that the cow belonged to him. There was a quarrel between them. They both came to me for justice.
I realised my mistake. I offered one lakh cows to the former but he denied the offer. I offered diamonds, gold etc to the later inliue of the cow. He also refused to receive them. Both brahmins were rigid about the cow. I was helpless.
After my death, I went to Yama. Yamd told me: “O king you have done several Godanas. But once you gave away one cow which has already been given to others, by which you were tainted with sin. You decide whether you suffer the sin you committed first and later enjoy the pleasures of Punya you earned, or vice versa. It is your choice.” said Yama.
I opted to suffer my sin first. Next moment, I began to fall on earth, my head downwards. On the way, one saint blessed me and said that I take the birth of chameleon and remain in this well for some time till Sri Krishna touches me. Hence I was in this well. With your touch I got rid of my sin. Now I go to heaven” said King Nruga.
“OKing Nruga! your life is a lesson to others. Knowingly or unknowingly, if Brahmin’s money is grabbed, he meets the same fate like you.” said Krishna.
Therefore, Dharmaja! dont commit such mistakes in your life.” said Bhishma.
“O Grandisre Bhishma! kindly tell me the fruits accrued on account of Godaanaa.” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! in the past, there was a saint called Uddaalaka. His son was Nachiketa. One day, Uddaalaka called Nachiketa and asked him to bring Samidhas(firewood), Kalasa(small vessel) and flowers which he forgot on the banks of the river. Nachiketa went there and did not find them as those articles were washed by the tides. Nachiketa came back and reported the same to his father. Uddaalaka was enraged with wrath.
“Why you have come here. Go to Yama” Uddaalaka cursed Nachiketa. Though Nachiketa fell upon the feet of his father, his Atma was taken to Yama and dead body of Nachiketa was lying there. Uddaalaka was lamenting for the death of his son. Next day morning, Nachiketa opened his eyes as if he awoke from sleep. Uddaalaka hugged his son “Omy son you have come back from Yama. How it happened” asked Uddaalaka.
“O my father, as per your word, I went to Yama. Yama received me and offered me a seat. “Nachiketa! your father asked you to visit me. You are not destined to die now. Hence you go back to your father” said Yama. I requested Yama to show me Punya Lokas. He has personally taken me to all Punya Lokas in a well decorated chariot. I found several people enjoying heavenly pleasures. I asked Yama about them.
“O Nachiketa! these are all persons who gave cows to brahmins in Godaanaa and they are enjoying the fruits of Godaana.” said Yama. Then I saluted Yama and came back” said Nachiketa to Uddaalaka.
Therefore, Dharmaja! that is the answer to your question.” said Bhishma.
“O Grandisre! Where do the persons who performed Godaanaa, stay? Where is that place?” asked Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! That place is called Goloka. There you do not find running of time.viz., days, months, seasons etc. There are no diseases, old age, thirst and hunger. They alwlays enjoy pleasures and happiness. In that Goloka, those who speak truth alwlays, who worship their preceptors, who control their mind and sense organs, who possess pure mind; also enjoy pleasures there.
Therefore, Dharmaja! amongst all charities, Godaana is best. But one should earn money legally and lalwfully, purchase cows and then perform Godaana. One should not perform Godaana, with other’s money. Therefore Dharmaja! you also perform Godaana alwlays and attain higher regions.” said Bhishma to Dharmaja, the fruits of Godaana.
Thus, Vaisampayana told Janamejaya, the story of Mahabharata.