On the occasion of Satra Yaga at Naimisaranya, Sooti told Saint Sounaka and other sages and saints the story of Maha Bharata as told by Saint Vaisampayana to King Janamejaya, on the occasion of Sarpa yaga.
Bhishma attained heaven. Dharmaja was lamenting for the death of Bhishma as himself and his brothers were brought up by Bhishma since childhood. He was unable to control his grief. Dhritarashtra consoled Dharmaja.
“O Dharmaja! Why you are lamenting for the death of Bhishma. It is not time for lamentation. You and your brothers take over the reigns of Kuru Kingdom. Either myself or my sons did not heed the advices of Vidura. Hence all my sons perished in war and I am helpless. Me and my wife are lamenting for the loss of my sons at this old age. You are not at fault. Kindly look after me and my wife till we leave this world.” said Dhritarashtra.
Sri Krishna told Dharmaja thus: "O Dharmaja! even if you lement for your brothers, will they come back alive? If you are lamenting like this, their souls will never rest in peace. Suyodhana and his brothers fought in the battle with vigour and valour and laid down their lives and attained Veera Svarga. Is it proper on your part to lament for such brave warriors?
You have so far heard several Dharmas directly from Bhishma. Still you are lamenting as lay man. Not only Bhishma, Saint Vyasa, Saint Narada etc also told you several morals. Remember them once. Stop this unnecessary lamentation. Perform a great Yajna. Worship deities, pitaras with utmost devotion. Take the reins of Kingdom and rule the people. Worship guests. Regard your friends and relatives. Be happy.” said Sri Krishna.
Not satisfied with the words of Sri Krishna, Dharmaja turned towards Veda Vyasa and said: "O Bhagavan Vyasa! I hope you always shower your kindness and love towards me. You saved me from several critical problems. Hence I pray you to kindly permit to go to forests and meditate there. Othersise, the mind of such a cruel fellow like me, who killed his own brother, Karna and grand sire Bhishma, will never be peaceful. How can I get rid of the great sins committed by me? Therefore I have to retire to forests for Tapas. Let my other brothers rule this Kingdom" prayed Dharmaja.
Vyasa grew angry. "O Dharmanandana! So far me and Bhishma told many things to you . Have they washed away in great wind and floods. Again you reverted back to the preliminary stage. Whether you believe it or not, you are not responsible for this great war. It is God, the Almighty who causes good or bad to human beings. You are not at fault. Still if you feel that you committed sin, you make Daana and Dharma(charities) and wipe out all your sins. Dont seek for permission to retire to forests which is a foolish idea. I am again advising you to wipe out all your sorrows from your mind by performing Asvamedha Yaga and offering enormous gifts to Brahmins." said Vyasa.
Dharmaja changed his mind. "O Vyasa! as you said, I perform Asvamedhayaga. But it is so expensive. Besides, you adivsed me to offer enormous gifts to brahmins. For the present there is no money in Royal Treasury. I cannot mulct the widows and children who lost their husbands and fathers in great war, with additional taxes. The envious Suyodhana, spent all the moneys in the Royal Treasury for otherwise avoidable war. Hence the Treasury is empty. I donot find any means to acquire money for the performance of Asvamedha Yaga. You have to show me the way to acquire money and perform Asvamedha yaga." asked Dharmaja.
Beholding Dharmaja with kind looks, Vyasa said: "O Dharmaja! in the past, King Maruttu performed a great Yaga and distributed his wealth to Brahmins. The entire wealth was accumulated with Brahmins. The virtuous brahmins, retained some wealth sufficient for their livelihood and preseved the remaining wealth, gold and silver, in gold vessels and secreted that treasure at a safe place, with a proclamation that "whoever finds this treasure in future, they will be owners of this treasure". So far none claimed that treasure. It is still in tact. You take that treasure and perform Asvamedha Yaga." said Vyasa.
Dharmaja entertained a doubt in mind whether that money was legally acquired or illegally acquired.To clear off that doubt, Dharmaja asked Vyasa: "O Saint Vyasa! Kindly tell me how Marut acquired that enormous wealth. Whether it was legally acquired or acquired by illegal means." asked Dharmaja.
"O Dharmaja! if I narrate the story of Marut, all your doubts will be cleared. In Kritayuga, there was Manuvu. His son was Prajani whose son was Kshuta. Ikshavaku was the son of Kshuta. Ikshvaaku got one hundred sons, elder being Vimsu whose son was Vivimsu. Vivimsu got 15 sons, elder being Khaninetra. Khani Netra was cruel and autocrat. He killed his 14 brothers and grabbed the throne. Khani Netra never trusted anybody. He hated his ministers and people.
Unable to bear his cruelty, all the ministers conspired
together, dethroned Khani Nitra and enthroned his son who was kindhearted.
He regarded his ministers with kindness and ruled the people with love
and affection. He gave away all his wealth in charities. He became poor.
Enemy Kings waged war against him and dethroned him . He retired to
forests. But he never felt sorry. He performed Tapas. With the power
of his Tapas, enormous army sprouted out. With the help of that army,
he conquered his enemies and regained his kingdom. He maintained control
of his sense organs and control of mind. He ruled his kingdom according
to dharma. with Angirasa as his Upadrashta, he performed may Yajnas
Dharmaja! do you know from where Marut got such enormous wealth. Listen carefully. I told you that the grandfather of Marut was called Karandhaka. The said Karandhaka performed many Asvamedha Yagas, keeping Angirasa as the chief priest. He attained heaven with mortal body. Avikshat was the son of Karandhaka. He also ruled the people as his own children. Marut was the son of Avikshat.
Marut did not even care Indra. Indra bore grudge against
Marut for his carelessness. Indra went to Brahaspati and said: "O
Guru Brihaspati! have you heard about Marut. He performed many Asvamedha
Yagas. Now he is going to perform another Yaga. For that, he fixed you
as Chief Priest. He is now coming to invite you as chief priest. Dont
forget that you are the divine priest. If you act as chief priest for
a yaga performed by a mortal, you will be degraded. Still if you accept
his request, you may forget me. Otherwise, you may continue as divine
priest. Decision is yours." said Devendra.
Satisfied with his words, Devendra went away.
Later, Marut went to Brahaspati and said: "O Divine Guru! I intended to perform a Yaga. I request you to be the chief priest of that Yaga. With the hope that you accept my request, I made all arrangements." said Marut.
"O King Marut! I cannot accede to your request. Why because, Indra also intended to perform a Yaga at the same time. I should act as Chief Priest for Indra Yaga." said Brihaspati.
"O Brihaspati! Your father, Angirasa, acted as chief priest for all Asvamedha Yagas peformed by my grand father. In the same manner, kindly accept my request and act as Chief Priest for my Yaga also."prayed Marut.
"O Marut! Have you forgotten that I am Deva Guru. I will act as chief priest for Yagas performed by divine bodies only but not for mortals. Afterall you are a mortal. How can you expect me as your Chief Priest. You seek some one else as your priest." Brihaspati insulted Marut.
Unable to say anything, with great insinuation, Marut went away. On the way, Narada met him.
"O Marut! where are you going and on what work." asked Narada.
"ONarada! I intended to perform a Yaga. For that I requested Brihaspati to be the chief priest. He rejected my request and also insulted me that he will preside over Yagas performed by divine bodies only not by mortals. Having met such an insult, why should I remain on this earth." said Marut.
"No No. If not Brihaspati, some one else will perform Yaga. Yaga will never stop. Brihaspati got one younger brother called Samvartana. Brihaspati insulted and drove Samvartana away from home. Samvartana went to forests. For the present, he is wandering like an insane person. You meet him and request him to be the chief priest of your Yaga. He will accept your offer." said Narada.
"O Narada! Very many thanks for showing me a way out. But where is Samvartana! How can I meet him and speak to him. Kindly tell me in detail." asked Marut.
"O King Marut! Samvartana is at present in Varanasi. He is wandering like a mad man.To identify him, I will tell a plan. You go to Varanasi. Keep a dead body in front of you and stand at the entrance gate of Varanasi. Whoever runs away beholding that dead body, he is Samvartana. Follow him and meet him at a lonely place and pray him with devotion. If he asks you "Who told you about me?" you can say that "Narada told about you." If he asks you about my whereabouts, you can tell him that "after informing me about you, Narada entered holy fire". said Narada.
Accordingly, Marut went to Varanasi, kept a dead body in front of him at the main gate of Varanasi. A mad man came there and saw that dead body. He ran away as if somebody chased him. Identifying him as Samvartana, Marut followed him.to the outskirts of the city. Marut stopped Samvartana. Samvartana threw some dust on the face of Marut and abused him and behaved like a mad man. But Marut did not get angry. Marut stood before him with folded hands.
"Who are you? Who sent you here? If you tell truth, your desire accomplishes. Otherwise, your head will break into thousand pieces." said Samvartha.
"O great man! I am King Marut. Narada gave information about you." said Marut.
"Where is Narada?" asked Samvartana.
"Narada entered holy fire" said Marut.
Looking at Marut, Samvartana asked: "What made you to come over here?" asked Samvartana.
"I intended to perform a Yaaga. You must be the Chief Priest for that Yaga. " prayed Marut.
Samvartana kept quiet.
Again Marut said: "O Great man! I am the grand son of Karandhama. Your father Angirasa acted as Chief Priest for all the Yagas performed by my grand father." said Marut.
Beholding Marut with kind looks, Samvartana said: "O King Marut! I am the brother of Brihaspati. Brihaspati insulted me and drove me out. I left my house, properties etc and wandering like this as mad man. How can this poor wanderer be the Chief Preist of your Yaga. It is an insult to you. Hence, you approach my brother Brihaspati and request him to be the Chief Priest for your Yaga. If you want me to be your Chief Priest, you have to obtain the permission of my brother, Brihaspati, because I got more respect towards my brother, Brihaspati. If my brother permits, I will act as Chief Priest for your Yaga. Therefore, first obtain permission from my brother, Brihaspati." said Samvartana.
"O Samvartana! even prior to come over here, I approached your brother, Brihaspati and requested him tobe the Chief Priest which he refused. He insulted me by saying that he cannot act as Chief Priest for a Yaga performed by a human. Indra instigated Brihaspati to talk like that. How can I again approach Brihaspati and request him" said Marut.
Samvartana convinced with his reply. "I accept your request. I will be the Chief Priest for your Yaga but on one condition. You shall never break your Deeksha under any circumstances. Whenver you break your Yaga Deeksha, I terminate the Yaga and curse you. You suffer a lot. Keep it in mind before commencing Yaga. As I have accepted your request, Brihaspati may bear grudge against you and may cause hurdles to your Yaga. You should have stable mind to face such hurdles." said Samvartana.
"O Samvartana! With your blessings, I face any amount of resistance at the hands anybody, leave alone Brihaspati or even Maheswara. I have no fear when you are by my side." said Marut firmly.
Samvartana satisfied with his words. "O King Marut! I make you richer than Indra and perform Yajna. Ofcourse, you may doubt my words. Hear me carefully. To the north of Himalayas, there is a mountain called Munjavanta. There, Lord Siva and Goddess Parvati, along with divine bodieses, Sidhas, Garudas, Gandharvas wander there. There you do not find either diseases or death. On that mountain, everything is gold. Gold stones, Gold sand is available in abundance. We go there and request Maheswara. With his blessings, we bring plenty of gold from that mountain. You employ more number of carriers to bring gold." said samvartana.
As per the words of Samvartana, Marut, along with Samvartana
went to that mountain and prayed Lord Siva and got his blessings. Marut
brought enormous gold from that mountain. In this manner, King Marut
got enormous wealth. Marut got prepared all utensils with gold. With
great splendour, he commenced Yaaga.
"O Devendra! King Marut, after all a mortal, against my wish, is performing a Yaga for which my enemy, my brother, Samvartana, is the chief priest. That is the reason for my distress. O Devendra! My heart is burning. Marut shall not perform that Yaga. You make Marut to abandon Samvartana. If necessary, I will be the Chief Priest but not my brother, Samvartana. " said Brihaspati.
Immediately, Devendra summoned Agni. "O Agni! King Marut is performing a Yaga. You have to go there as my emissary and tell Marut that Brihaspati will perform Yaaga as Chief Priest. I do not know what you do. You have to make Marut to accept Brihaspati as Chief Priest." said Devendra.
Accordingly, Agni went to Marut as emissary of Devendra. Agni introduced himself as Agni. Marut saluted Agni. Marut called Samvartana. Marut and Samvartana greeted Agni and offered him Arghyam and Padyam and a seat. Agni told Marut thus:
" Devendra sent me as emissary to you. Brihaspati,
the Divine Priest, has agreed to be the Chief Priest for your Yaga.
If Brihaspati performs your Yaga, you attain divinity. Hence, you have
to accept Brihaspati as chief priest. These are the words of Devendra."
"O King Marut! it is not like that. If Divine Priest,Brihaspati is your Chief Priest, you may attain Punya Lokas. It is for your benefit only." said Agni.
Till then, Samvartana was patiently hearing the words of Agni. Now he was enraged with great wrath. "O Agni! if you continue to speak like this, I will reduce you to ashes with my looks only. Take care. Get out of this place and mind your own business." warned Samvartana.
Agni was afraid of the words of Samvartana. Immediately he returned back to Devendra. "O Devendra! I repeated your words before Marut. Marut did not accede to your request. When I further continued to talk, Samvartana threatened me with dire consequences. Hence I came back running." said Agni.
"O Agni! why cannot you go back to Marut and try
once again by hook or crook and make him agree to our proposal. Still
if he does not agree, threaten him that he will be sent to abode of
Yama with my Vajrayudha.Tell him that this is the order of Devendra.
Because it is our prestigious issue I am requesting you." asked
"O Agni! why are you afraid of Samvartana, a brahmin. You yourself reduce everything into ashes.How can you be reduced to ashes. Quite strange." said Devendra.
"O Devendra!you might have forgotten about Yoga Sakti. Do you remember how you were defeated by Vritrasura. When you obstructed Asvins from drinking Soma rasa, how you suffered at the hands of Brahmin Chyavana, have you forgotten. Then you were made to give share of Soma Rasa to Asvins. Therefore, Yoga power is greater than all powers. Hence I wont go to Samvartana and face his wrath." said Agni.
Then Devendra called, a gandharva called Dhritarashtra and directed him to go to Marut and convey his message and directions. Not aware of the past events, Dhritarashtra, the Gandharva, went to Marut and said thus:
"O King Marut! You have to fix Brihaspati as the Chief Priest for your Yaga. This is the order of Devendra. If you do like this, he feels happy. Otherwise, Devendra will be forced to launch Vajrayudha against you. Do as you like." said Gandharva.
Then Marut tried to pacify the Gandharva."O Gandharva! Before I commence Yaga, I prayed Brihaspati to be the Chief Priest, But he refused on the pretext that I am mortal. Hence I approached his brother, Samvartana and requested him to be my Chief Priest for which he agreed. Now, how can I fix Brihaspati to be the Chief Priest for my Yaga. Does it not amount to breach of trust. Not only Devendra but all Sidhas, Sadhyas and Gandharvas also know about this." said Marut.
While this conversaion was going on, Vajrayudha was coming towards Marut. Beholding Vajrayudha, Gandharva said: "O Marut! look at Vajrayudha. It is fast approaching to destroy you. I do not know how you avert Vajrayudha." said Gandharva.
Marut also was afraid of Vajrayudha. He looked at Samvartana and said: "O great saint! Vajrayudha is advancing towards me. You have to save me." prayed Marut.
Samvartana smiled and said: "O King Marut! Why do you fear about Vajrayudha. Devendra knows about me. I will retreat Vajrayudha with my samsthambhana art. Not only the weapon of Devendra, all the weapons of divine bodies nullify before Samstambhana art. Hence forget about Vajrayudha. Choose whatever you like." said Samvartana.
"O great saint! when you are here, I never afraid of any weapon. Kindly bless me with one boon. Kindly make Devendra to come to my Yaga and receive their due shares of Havis." prayed Marut.
"O King Marut! not only Devendra, all divine bodies will grace your Yaga and receive their due shares of Havis personally. Therefore, send invitations to Devendra and other divine bodies and commence your Yaga." said Samvartana.
Then samvartana, with his Yoga power, sent back Vajrayudha to Mahendra. During Yaga, Samvartana chanted vedic hymns invoking Devendra and other divine bodies. With the power of those hymns, Devendra along with his companions, visited Yaga. Marut received Devendra and other divine bodies with great honors and offered Arghyam, Padyam and suitable seats.
"O Devendra! kindly subside your anger against me. I am greatful to you for visiting my abode. I am blessed." prayed Marut.
Marut introduced Samvartana to Devendra: "O Devendra! this great sage is the own brother of Brihaspati. I requested him to be the chief priest of my yaga. He agreed for the same." said Marut.
"O Marut! I am very much satisfied with your hospitality and your request. I know that Saint Samvartana is equal to Brihaspati." said Devendra.
Then Samvartana said: "O Devendra! As a result of my tapas, you have come here on my invocation. With your presence, this Yaga is accomplished. O Devendra! you are aware of everything. Kindly shower your divine blessings upon us. I will perform this Yaga without any fault. Kindly supervise my performance. With your visit, King Marut attained divinity." said Samvartana with humble voice.
With the praises of Samvartana, Devendra was very much satisfied and happy. Then he ordered all divine bodies.
" Decorate this Yaga place with great splendour. Send for Rambha and other apsarasas and arrange all kinds of dance and entertainment programmes. Extend your help to King Marut and his ministers for the success of Yaga." ordered Devendra.
Under the supervision of Samvartana, Yaga was completed successfully. Samvartana offered Soma juice to Devendra and other divine bodies, calling each by name. Devendra and other divine bodies consumed Soma rasa and satisfied themselves. After taking leave from Marut, Devendra and other divine bodies retired to heaven.
At the end of Yaga, Marut worshipped Brahmins and guests and gave them gold coins, gold vessels etc. After receiving enormous gold articles, coins, ornaments and gold vessels from Marut, all brahmins could not carry them to their own places. Then they retained gold sufficient for their livelihood. They kept the remaining gold coins, ornaments and gold articles in big vessels and buried them. They left a note in writing that "this wealth belongs to those who find this wealth in future."
O Dharmaja! so far, that wealth was not unearthed by anybody. It is still in tact. You find that wealth, bring it to Hastinapura and perform Asvamedha Yaga." said Veda Vyasa.
Inspite of the idea given by Veda Vyasa to acquire wealth, Dharmaja was not happy. Krishna told Dharmaja thus: "O Dharmaja! atleast, even after hearing what Vyasa said, relinquish your wicked ideas and perform Asvamedha Yaga. Give up all your unnecessary thoughts. O Dharmaja! you never perform any task honestly and straightly. You unnecessarily lament for unnecessary things. What had happened to the knowledge acquired by you so far? You are unable to put an end to your sorrows means you are unable to discard your desires, anger, greediness, passions and aggrandizement. In this connection I tell you a story.
Once Vritrasura conquered earth and heaven. Vritrasura grabbed the natural scent of earth. Indra hurled his Vajrayudha against Vritrasura. Vritrasura entered into the other four elements except earth viz., water, fire, wind and sky. He grabbed juice from water, form from fire, touch from air and sound from sky which are natural attributes to those four elements. Therefore the five attributes of five main elements are under control of Vritrasura. Vritrasura shined with great spelndour.
Beholding this, Indra again hurled his Vajrayudha. Vritrasura, leaving the five elements, entered into the body of Indra. Indra fainted. With the Yoga power of Vasishta, Indra regained consciousness. Then Indra killed Vritrasura with his Vajrayudha. Therefore, Dharmanandana, you have first kill your inner enemies viz., kama, krodha, lobha, moha, mada and matsarya." said Krishna.
Krishna continued to say: "O Dharmaja! diseases are of two kinds. physical and mental. In our body, there are three main elements. They are Vata, pitta and Sleshma. (vata means air or gas produced in stomache. pitta means juices produced in stomache. Sleshma means phlegm). If these three humors are balanced, the man keeps good health. Imbalance of these three humors cause all kinds of diseases. This is physical unrest. Satva, Rajas and Tamas control the mind. If these three qualities are in equal proportions, his mind remains stable. Any imbalance in these three qualities causes unrest to mind. Physical unrest and mental unrest are caused one after another. They never come alone. If physical and mental unrest combine together, his life will be ruined.
Dharmaja! you do not know how to do Karma properly. Hence you are unable to complete any work properly. Now you are suffering both physical and mental unrest. Hence you are unable to take any decision. First acquire knowledge.Use your wisdom. Keep your mind calm and quiet, free from satva, rajas and tamas.
I now tell you how you think about yourself. You are still thinking about the incident happened in full court, bringing Droupadi to court and take off her clothes and insulting her. Forget about it. Make up your mind that that incident had never happened. You also wipe out from your mind all woes suffered by you during Aranya and Ajnata period. Dont recollect about the nasty acts of Saindhava. You never suffered anything in the court of Virata. Assume that you never killed Bhishma, Drona, Karna etc. warriors, and your kith and kin. Make up your mind that you are never responsible for those deaths. You never fought with any body. Why all these things. The great war never happened. Think like that. Then you never agitate in your mind about the good and bad effects caused by the war.
You know why I told you that the war never happened and it is all myth. Now, I tell you about the real war. In fact Kouravas are not your real enemies. The real enemy is your mind. You have always been thinking in your mind that Kouravas are your enemies. Hence they became your enemies and you are inimical towards them. Hence you fought with them. Either for friendship or enmity, your mind is responsible. Your real friend is your Atma. If you keep your mind stable, the entire outside world appears to be friendly and peaceful. Hence keep your mind always stable and undisturbed.
First you try to conquer your inner enemies, your anger, desires, passions, greediness etc. Without conquering your inner enemies, there is no use of weeping loudly. You control your mind and follow the right path. More than this, I cannot tell.
O Dharmaja! Mruthyu, Brahma, and self and selflessness. There is always conflict between these duals. Mruthyu means death. Brahma means birth. Mruthyu always tries to kill the persons born and those who are dead always try to take another body by rebirth. There is always an invisible war between these two concepts, birth and death. Atma is beyond these two concepts of birth and death. Atma has no decay. Atma has no connection with body. Atma has no limitation and decay which are natural to body. Atma is indivisible.
Even if he is a King and Emperor of the entire earth, if he does not have the desire to rule the entire earth for ever, he is not tainted with any sin. Similarly, if a sanyasi, who renunciated the wordly plelasures and retired to forests for deep meditation, does not control his sense organs and craves for worldly pleasures, there is no use of his remaining in forests and deep meditation. He will always be coming near to death.
O Dharmaja! you are thinking that you conquered all your enemies in war. Is it also a victory? Conquering outside enemies is not at all a victory. If you conquer your inner enemies, it is a real victory. Your prominent enemy is desire. There is no work without desire. Study of Vedas and sastras, and making charities are done only with some desire or other but not without any desire.
Once "the desire" said thus: "I am desire or wish. All those who are under my influence can never conquer me. I am known only by study of Vedas. Without knowledge of Vedas, none can conquer me. If any body intends to conquer me, that intention itself is a desire. I always accompany every human being because his mind is alwlays filled with one desire or other. But that human does not know that I always accompany him. Hence, none can conquer me. Even the wish to conquer me itself is a desire. That desire is mine. Who else can conquer me?
If one performs Tapas with an intention to conquer the desires, that intention itself is a desire. That is mine. Another performs Tapas with an intention to attain Moksha, that intention itself is a desire. That desire is mine. Hence none can conquer me.. Therefore, I am eternal. I have no death." said 'the desire'.
Therefore Dharmanandana! listen to me. Abstaining from doing anything with desire; concentrating on the work that is being done; performing Tapas in forests without any desire; are the ways to conquer desire. But doing such things is impossible and beyond the capacity of human beings. Hence "the desire" proclaimed that none can conquer him.
Hence Dharmaja! remove all desires from your mind. Kill all your desires. Without any deisre, perform asvamedha yaga. Then only you attain Punya. and 'the desire' will witness your Yaga. O Dharmanandanaa! even if you lament like this, will anybody return back from heaven? Therefore, stop lamenting. Dont think about the dead even in your dream. Perform Yajnas and Yagas in abundance. The entire world appreciate you. You also attain Punya Lokas." said Sri Krishna.
Then, saints Vyasa, Devasthana, Narada also told Dharmaja about his welfare. Even Bhima, Arjuna, twins and Droupadi also told sermons. After being brain washed by all of them, Dharmaja gave up the idea of retiring to forests and agreed to rule the Kuru kingdom and perform Asvamedha Yaga. As an expiation for killing his own kith and kin during war, Dharmaja along with his brothers stayed on the banks of Ganga for some days. Dharmaja gave send off to all the sages and saints arrived there.
He said to Vyasa: "O Bhagavan Vyasa! with your kind words, I could come to know about the great treasure. I along with your goodself go there and acquire that treasure. I complete Asvamedha Yaga without any interruption." said Dharmaja. With the permission of Vyasa, Dharmaja performed the obsequies of Bhishma and made charities on that occasion. After spending some more days, Dharmaja along with his brothers, Dhritarashtra, Krishna etc went back to Hastinapura. He shed all his sorrows and engaged in day to day administration.
At this juncture, King Janamejaya thought that the story of Maha Bharata came to an end. Hence he put a question to saint Vaisampayana. "O Saint! while Dharmaja was engaged in administration and ruling the kingdom, how Krishna and Arjuna spent their time. Kindly tell me" asked King Janamejaya, with a view to prolong the story. Accordingly, Saint Vaisampayana continued the story of Maha Bharata.
"O Janamejaya! while Dharmaja was ruling the people of Hastinapura, Krishna and Arjuna were spending their time happily by going round all holy places. Now and then Arjuna was lamenting for the death of Abhimanyu and Krishna was consoling him.
After the construction of Maya Sabha was completed, Pandavas were busy with Rajasooya Yaga. Soon after Rajasooya Yaga, on account of dias game, Pandavas went to forests. At the end of war, now they came back to power. Hence, Arjuna and Krishna had no occasion to go round Mayasabha completely so far. Hence, Krishna and Arjuna went to Maya Sabha to have a complete look. They went round Maya Sabha completely and observed every minute detail. They were very happy to possess such a magnificent Maya Sabha.
One day Sri Krishna told Arjuna thus: "O Arjuna! the war was over. You all got back your kingdom, wealth and riches. Dharmaja is ruling the Kingdom to the satisfaction of one and all. I left Dwaraka long time ago. My parents, my brother, my wives and children are waiting for my arrival. I am also very eager to see all of them. Hence I go back to Dwaraka. But without permission of Dharmaja I cannot goback. Hence we go back to Hastinapura. At appropriate you inform Dharmaja about my return journey to Dwaraka." said Krishna.
"O Sri Krishna! certainly I convince Dharmaja and take permission for your return journey. But I would like to ask you one thing. Before commencement of war, while I was reluctant to proceed with the war, you told me several things. On account of this war, I have forgotten all of them. Be kind towards me and repeat the same once again." prayed Arjuna.
Krishna laughed loudly. Krishna hugged Arjuna and said: "O Arjuna! you have no brain. Not only brain, you have no concentration or devotion. How can you live in this world. Whatever be your task, you have to concentrate your mind and intellect on it. You bestow attention on the work to be executed. You have to remember whatelse you heard. Then only you can accomplish your desires." Krishna smoothly chastised Arjuna.
Krishna continued to say: "O Arjuna! what I told you on that day were the holy paths to attain Brahma Padam. You did not bestow your attention and retain them in your mind. What can I do? Now it is not possible for me to repeat them again? Alternatively, I tell you one story. Carefully listen.
One day a brahmin came to my house. I asked him to teach me about knowledge of Tatva. That brahmin said thus:
"OKrishna! once I met one Sidha called Kashyapa.
Kashyapa conquered his sense organs and mind. He was wise and learned.
He was liberated from Samsara. I served him as his student. He taught
me many things. Now I narrate what he told me." said that Brahmin.
Then that Brahmin told Sidha: "O Great man! kindly teach me about Para Tatva." asked the Brahmin.
"O Brahmin! Brahma Pada shall be attained only through this body. Hence you have to keep this body healthy. Take timely food, that too limited food. Some people take food untimely, whatever they like, whenever they like and whereever they like. Some people, in order to attain Punya, observe strict fasting without taking anything. Both are not correct. Some other people consume raw and semi cooked food. Some people take food, with short intervals. Some sleep soon after they take food. As a result of the above bad habits, the inner elements in our body viz., vata, pitta and sleshma get imbalanced and cause severe diseases.
Some people act quite against their nature. They provoke themselves unnecessarily. With these habits, they fell ill frequently. Some have plenty of desires. If those desires are not accomplished, they get angry, as a result, they are afflicted with many diseases. Untimely food and bad habits invite dreadful diseases which may result in death.
Now I tell you about Sleshma (phlegm). If phlegm is formed in body more than necessary, it creates many diseases. Sometimes phlegm obstructs respiratory system. As a result, unable to stay in this body, Jeeva leaves this body. That is death. . In our body there are 10 organs. All these ten organs are controlled by mind. Intellect is advisory in nature. Under the control of mind and intellect, body through these ten organs enjoy the plealsures in outside world. Whenever Phlegm obstructs some of the organs, that is the root for any disease.
Next is called Vata (wind or gas). This Vata spreads throughout the body. If Vata is polluted by our food habits and other habits, it paralyses some organs (which is called paralysis, joint pains etc.) Vata controls movement of tongue, hands, legs, joints etc. If Vata is provoked, the above limbs are affected. If Sleshma and Pitta affect together, it causes total collapse of the body. If Vata, Pitta and Sleshma are imbalanced, Jeeva cannot remain in this body. Hence Jeeva leaves this body, causing death.
After leaving the body, jeeva takes another body suitable to undergo pleasures and sorrows as a result of his past deeds. If one does Papa (sin), he goes to hell and if one does Punya (virtuous deeds) he goes to heaven. One who has no bondage attains liberation. One who does Punya goes to Soorya Mandala, Chandra Mandala and Nakshatra Mandala. There they enjoy pleasures according to their Punya and soon after the Punya is exhausted, takes birth on earth. One who attains liberation is emancipated from this birth and death cycle.
The good and bad deeds committed by a human being cause his next birth. None can escape from the results of past deeds. When a male and female leads conjugal life, man's sperm mixes with lady's blood. It forms into foetus. It attains consciousness and feeling. Slowly foetus forms into a full fledged body ie., child. After nine months, Child comes out of mother's womb. Child grows into boy, girl, youth, middle aged and old age. He or she acts in the outside world as per the results of his past deeds. At last he dies. As long as he does not attain liberation, he will be going round this birth and death cycle.
Now I tell you about Moksha, Mukti (liberation). Performing danas, controlling mind and sense organs, observing Brahmacharya, kindness towards others, not enamouring about other's wealth and other's wives, leading virtuous life; controlling sense organs, worshipping parents and teachers and guests; telling always truth; maintaining cleanliness; performing auspicious ceremonies; maintaining vigour and valour; abandoning cruelty; etc are the best ways to attain liberation. Leading life in the above path leads to Moksha.
Not only this, lelading life according to Dharma is also important. Dharma has to be learnt from teacher. One has to follow the foot steps of teachers and elders. Then only one can follow dharma scrupulously. Conquering sense organs and leading peaceful life and worshipping Parabrahma are the virtuous deeds of human being. For such a human being, Brahma itself is fire, Yaga, fuel, water, Mantra, priest etc. Likes and dislikes do not cause any harm to such a human being. In due course, he is detatched from Samsara.
At the inception, Brahma intended to create this world. First he created Kshara tatva. (things subject to change and decay). Beyond that, he created Askara tatva (thing without change or decay). Ashara means Amrutha (thing without death). With the combination of Kshara and Akshara, the entire universe was created. Then Brahma created births and deaths. Jeeva is going round this birth and death cycle. While going round this birth and death cycle, jeeva performs virtuous deeds (Punya) and becomes wiser. Jeeva thinks that worldly pleasures and this body are not eternal. He thinks that constant performing of Karma is nothing but a disease. He abandons desires and passions. He proceeds towards Moksha.
First he cleanses all his sins. He takes care not to entangle again in this birth and death cycle. He realises that taking birth, diseases, old age and death are nothing but changes caused in one's own life and lamenting for these changes is nothing but ignorance. He always tries for Moksha. He sits in a lonely place. He removes all his worries from his mind. He never allows new thoughts into his mind. He never depends upon anything. He conquers his sense organs and abandons likes and dislikes. He treats praise or insult in same manner. He beholds God in every being. He attains Atma Jnana.
Whoever treats profit and loss; love and hatredness; pleasures and sorrows, likes and dislikes equally; who ever abandons all duals; who ever relinquishes Dharma, Ardha, Kama for the sake of Moksha; whoever feels detatched that he is not the cause for anything; such a human being is entitled for Moksha. That seat of Moksha is independent. It is not made up of five elements. Their attributes do not influence Moksha. By constant practice only, one can attain Moksha. To attain Moksha, one has to discard all kinds of desires and intentions and keep his mind stable and does constant practice.
O Brahmin! now I tell you about Atma which is realised by Yogis. Atma is subtle. It is not visible to naked eye. By attaining knowledge only we can see atma. It is possible only for Yogis. Yogi first detatches Jeevatma from body. Then he tries to realise Parama Atma. After realising Parama Atma, he is liberated from this birth and death cycle. Such a Yogi is not afflicted with diseases, old age and death. He does not feel plealsure or sorrow. Such a Yogi takes along with him others also along the Path of Moksha. Such aYogi always thinks that this body is not eternal. Hence he does not care for the upkeep of this body. He always thinks to behold Atma. He Practices Yoga. He is not afraid of anything. He never feels happiness or sorrow on account of Raaga and Dvesha. Such a Yogi refuses the status of Indra. He always beholds his innerself and entangles mind with Atma.
Such a Yogi always entangles his mind with Atma and keeps it there for ever. Then he attains the eternal Brahma Pada. One cannot behold Brahma Pada with naked eye and cannot hear about it with ears. Only with peaceful and stable mind only, one can behold Brahma Pada. This Brahman is all pervasive and shines like Sun. Only Yogis can behold it. When the Jeevatma is separated from body and entangled with Paramatma only, one can behold Parama Tatva.
O Krishna! this is what was told by that Sidha." said Brahmin to Krishna.
"O Arjuna! I told you in brief what I told you at the beginning of war in the form of conversation between the Brahmin and Sidha. You are at liberty to tell this to anybody but to those who listen with devotion. I told this to divine bodies. You are the first mortal to listen to this Yoga. All, both men or women but with with great devotion, are entitled to practice this Yoga; because this Yoga is to be practiced by one and all. In this creation, everybody is entitled to attain Mukti. There is no doubt that whoever practices this Yoga with greater devotion and constant practice, by abandoning all worldly pleasures, he can attain Brahma Pada.
O Arjuna! I told you what all I can tell. None can tell you more than this." said Krishna to Arjuna about Brahma Vidya.