"O Vaisampaayana, "how did those heroes, the Kurus, the Pandavas, and the high-souled kings assembled together from various countries, fight?" asked Janamejaya.
Saint Vaisampaayana continued to say:
"Entering Kurukshetra, the Pandavas and Kouravas, along with their respective armies, endued with great might, desirous of victory, were advancing against each other. The whole earth seemed then to be empty, divested of horses and men, destitute of chariots and elephants, and with only the children, ladies and the old left at home.
At that time Dhritarashtra, summoned Sanjaya. Both were discussing about the impending war. At that time, the holy VedaVyasa, the son of Satyavati, conversant with the past, the present, and the future, and beholding everything as if it were present before his eyes, arrived there. Dhritarashtra received him with due honours.
"O king Dhritarashtra, your sons and the other monarchs have their hour arrived. Mustered in battle they will kill one another. Their hour having come, they will all perish. Bearing in mind the changes brought on by time, do not yield your heart to grief. If you wish to see them fighting in battle, I will, bless you with divine vision. Behold the battle." said Veda Vyasa.
Dhritarashtra said "O Saint Veda Vyasa, I like not to behold the slaughter of my kith and kin. I shall, however, through your potency hear of this battle minutely."
" Sanjaya will describe the battle to you. Nothing in the whole battle will be beyond his eyes. Endued, with celestial vision, Sanjaya will narrate the battle to you. He will have knowledge of everything. Manifest or concealed, by day or by night, even that which is thought of in the mind, Sanjaya shall know everything. Weapons or arrows will not hit him or cut him. Sanjaya will come out of the battle with life safely.
Sanjaya you are blessed with divine vision. You describe the entire battle to Dhritarashtra." said Vyasa.
"O King Dhritarashtra! this war is meant only to decrease the weight of earth. You need not worry about this. Do not grieve. This is destiny, It is not capable of being prevented. As regards victory, it is there where righteousness is. even now it is not too late. Let the Pandavas have their kingdom, and let the Kauravas have peace." said saint Vyasa.
"I know you are telling all these things in my own interest. But what todo. My sons are not obedient to me. They will never heed my words. I told them many a time about this. I even chastised them. But I am in vain. I am helpless" said Dhritarashtra. Then Saint Vyasa went away.

Then King Dhritarashtra asked Sanjaya: "O Sanjaya! Several kings in the ancient past fought for the sake of this earth and perished. Is this earth so sweet and dear to all the Kings? Kindly tell me the attributes of this earth and its nature and qualities." asked Dhritarasthra.
Sanjaya continued to say:
"O King, I will tell you the attributes of earth according to my knowledge. Behold them with the eye of your wisdom. Creatures on this earth are of two kinds, moving or non-moving. They are taking birth and meeting their death. For all these moving or non moving beings, the earth is the abode. The Earth is the stay and refuge of all creatures, and the Earth is eternal.
There are five elements. Those elements, are space, air, fire, water, and earth. Their respective attributes are sound, touch, vision, taste, and scent.
The attribute of space is sound.
The attributes of air are sound and touch.
The attributes of fire are sound, touch and vision.
The attributes of water are sound, touch, vision and taste.
The attributes of earth are sound, touch, vision, taste and scent.
Therefore earth is foremost of all the elements.
To the south of Mount Meru, there is a place called Sudarsanam. In that place, there was a Jambu tree extending about 2,500 yojanas. It is a fruit bearing tree. The fruits of that tree were continously falling on earth and crushed. The juices of those fruits flow like a stream around that mountain and enter Northern Kuru plains, and enter the sea. That stream was called as Jambu river.
Wherever the fruit juices of that tree touch, it will transform into gold. Hence gold is called Jaambunada. Anybody consumes the water of that river shall be ceased of old age, diseases, hunger and thirst. In the name of that Jambu tree, that island was called Jambu Island.
This island is bounded on east and west by seas. In this island, you can see mountains viz., Himachal, Hemakoota, Nishadha, Neela, Svetha, Srungavanta.
In between Nishadha and Neela mountains, Mount Meru is situated. Its length if 84,000 yojanas. It is protruded into earth to the extent of 16,000 yojanas. This Meru Mountain is the common abode of divine bodies, devine saints, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Devendra, Dikpaalakas, Lord Brahma etc.
To the north of Meru, there is Karnika Vana. This Karnika Vana is the resort of Lord Siva, along with his wife, Gouri.
All the delightful kingdoms in this Jambu island, are divided into nine parts. They are called Varshas.
(1) The land between Northern sea and Srungavanta mountain is called Airaavasa Varsha.
(2) The land between Mountains Svetha and Srungavanta is called Hairanmaya Varsha.
(3) The northern part of Neela mountains is called Ramanaka Varsha.
(4) The southern part of Neela mountain is called Nilaakruta Varsha.
(5) The eastern part of Meru Mountain is called Bhadraasva Varsha.
(6) The western part of Meru mountain is called Ketu Mala Varsha.
(7) The northern part of Meru Mountain is called Hari Varsha.
The surrounding parts of Himachala Mountain are called
(8) Kimpurusha Varsha and
(9) Bharata Varsha.

The island, Jambu Dweepa, is extending upto an area of 80,600 yojanas. There is a salt sea double the extent of Jambu Dweepa.
Likewise, Ikshu rasa sea, Sura sea, Ghruta sea, Dadhi sea, Ksheera sea, pure water sea are extending double the extent of the other.
There are six islands called Laksh Dweep, Saalmala Dweep, Krouncha Dweep, Kusa Dweep, Saaka Dweep, and Pushkara Dweep.
In these islands, there are many mountains, rivers, kingdoms. Srimannaarayana, who creates, sustains and destroys the entire earth had a resort in Vaikunta, beyond Ksheera Sagara." said Sanjaya.
"Sanjaya! for the sake of this Bharata Varsha, both my sons and Pandavas are fighting with each other? Will there be any greedy and covetous people on earth besides these?" asked Dhritarashtra.
"O King Dhritarashtra, the sons of Pandu are not at all greedy or covetous about this earth. On the other hand, it is Duryodhana and Sakuni, that are covetous, as also many other Kshatriyas, who are rulers of the provinces, who being covetous of this country, are not able to bear one another.
In the ancient past also, many kings fought for this land and met their death. But there were also kings like Bhageeratha, Yayati, Raghvu and Nahusha who performed many Yajnas and Yagas and acquired name and fame.
In this Bharta Varsha, there are seven mountains called, Malaya, Suktimanta, Vindhya, Pariyatra, Mahendra, Rukshavanta, and Sahyadri. There are several mines and minerals in these mountains viz., diamonds, precious stones and metals like iron, copper, alluminium, silver and gold etc.
There are many rivers flowing in Bharata varsha. They are River Ganga, Tungabhadra, Vetravati, Vedavati, Krishnaveni, Penna, Yamuna, Tamasa, Saaraavati, Kaveri, Godavari, Narmada, Bahuda, Sarayu, Satadruvu, Vitastha, Vipaasa, Taamraparni.
With the holy waters flowing in these rivers, the entire Bhartha Varsha has become fertile and yielding plenty of crops in abundance.
There are several kingdoms flourished in Bharatavarsha. Some of them are---Paanchaala, Paandya, Barbara, Vatsa, Matsya, Magadha, Malayala, Kalinga, Kulinga, Kuru, Konkana, Tenkana, Trigarta, Saamudra, Saalva, Soorasena, Sudheshna, Suhma, KarooSa, Kaasa, Kosala, Yavana, Yugandhara, Andhra, Sindhu, Chedhi, Chola, Pulinda, Pundraka, Pandya, Abheera, Souveera, Sourashtra, Maharashtra, Videha, Vidarbha, Dravida, DasaarNa, karnaata, Goula, Anga, Vanga, MaraaTa, Laata, Baahlika, Bahudaana, Kiraata, Kekaya, Asmantaka, Kashmira, Gandhara, Kambhoja, Malava, Nepala, Ghoornara, Kuntala, Avanti etc.
The people living in these kingdoms were enriched with great wealth. Therefore, this earth is nothing but Kamadhenu for all the living beings on this earth. Inspite of possessing such an enormous wealth, minerals, fertile lands etc. on this earth, still the Kings have been fighting with each other for supremacy. Fathers, Sons, brothers have been fighting and killing each other for the sake of this land with greediness. Therefore there is nothing strange in Kouravas and Pandavas fighting with each other for the sake of this earth." said Sanjaya.
After hearing the great attributes of earth, Dhritarashtra asked Sanjaya to go to the battle field and find out what was happening in the battle field. As per the directions of the King Dhritarashtra Sanjaya proceeded to Kurukshetra.
After some days, Sanjaya returned back to King Dhritarashtra and fell on his feet and began to weep saying that the Great Hero, Bhishma, was defeated by Sikhandi on the tenth day of war and he was laying on Ampa Sayya (bed of arrows). Sanjaya could not control his grief.
"O King Dhritarashtra, the foremost of all the warriors, was defeated by Sikhandi. The great warrior who defeated Parasurama was defeated by Sikhandi. Relying on whose strength, your son defeated Pandavas wickedly in Dice game, that Bhishma was defeated brutally in the game of war. Bheeshma, scattering arrows in thousands with the utmost composure, daily killing ten thousand warriors, for ten days, is now taking rest on bed of arrows." said Sanjaya in grief.
On hering these words of Sanjaya, Dhritarashtra could not control himself.

"Sanjaya! How has Bhishma,was defeated by Sikhandi? It is nothing but wonder. How did my father, who resembled Vasava himself, fall down from his chariot? What became of my sons, O Sanjaya, when they were deprived of the mighty Bhishma who was like a celestial, and who led life of Brahmacarya for the sake of his father? I believed that his virtues, his trustwortiness, his prowess, his vigour, his valour and his truthfulness were indestructibe. What can I do now, Sanjaya, what can I do?

Sanjaya! tell me! while Sikhandi was showering arrows on Bheeshma, why none could come to his rescue. What had hapened to our eleven Akshouhini strong army?

Cannot they attack one Sikhandi?

Did Drona, krupa, Asvathaama and Salya flee away from war?

While Sikhandi was attacking Bheeshma, what had happened to my sons? Did they hide themselves in forests like cowards?

It is strange how God also is helping Pandavas who killed Bhishma for the sake of this earth.

Sanjaya! tell me in detail what had happened during these ten days of war. Who fought with whom? How Bhishma fought with Pandavas during these ten days? While advancing against the enemy troops, who followed Bhishma and who proceeded ahead? Who stayed by his side? Who proceeded with him? What brave combatants followed behind Bheeshma? Tell me in detail" asked Dhritarashtra.

Sanjaya continued to say the details of Ten days Kurukshetra war. He prayed Vedavyasa in his mind and began to tell.

"After taking leave from you, I proceeded to Kurukshetra.

Your son, surrounded by all the warriors was discussing with them about war. I stood by the side of a pillar and was hearing everything in detail.

Suyodhana told Dussaasana. "Dussaasana! We have been waiting for an opportunity to kill Pandavas in war. Our desire is going to be accomplished. Our Chief of Army is Bheeshma. We have to protect him at any cost. He is the only warrior who can vanish the entire Pandava Army. None will survive in a combat with Bheeshma except Sikhandi. So we have to see that Sikhandi shall not appear before Bheeshma." said Suyodhana.

Then the war began. With the blare of conches and the sound of drums that resembled leonine roars, with the neigh of horses, and the clatter of chariot-wheels, with the noise of elephants and the shouts, clapping of arm-pits, and cries of roaring combatants, the din caused everywhere was very great.
Bheeshma with golden palm tree on his flag, Drona with golden stage on his flag, Krupacharya with golden cow on his flag, Asvathaama with golden lion with tail on his flag, and other kings and warriors with their respective flags flying on their chariots, were proceeding for war.

Krutavarma, Jayadhradha, Bhagadatta, with their respective armies, Sakuni with his brothers and sons, Somadatta, Bhoorisrava, Baahlima, with their respective armies assembled in the war field. Sudakshina, king of Kambhoja, Bruhadbala, king of Kosala, Neela, king of Mahishmati, Susarma, king of Trigarta, Alambasa, king of Rakshasas, Saalva, Souveera, Soorasena, Yavana kings with their respective armies took positions on the war field.
The above army consists of Ten thousand Akshouhinis.

Your son, Suyodhana, with a serpant symbol on his flag, followed by the eleventh akshouhini army, was proceeding on a well decorated elephant. Dussaasana, Durmarshana, Vivimsati, Vikarna and other brothers accompanied him. The entire eleven akshouhini army reached the war field.

Bhishma addressed the chief warriors in the army.

"O great warriors! Listen to me. At the time of war, the doors of heaven will remain open always. Hither to several warriors, fought and killed in war, proceeded through those doors to heaven. You all must be ready to walk through those doors to heaven. It is a sin for a Kshatriya to remain at home and die with diseases and old age. It is a great boon for a Kshatriya warrior to die in war like a hero." said Bheeshma in a loud voice.

On hearing these words, all the warriors roared like lions "We are with you. We will fight either for victory or for heaven." and get themselves ready for war.

Then Bheeshma looked at Suyodhana and said: "Suyodhana! Can I take it for granted that Karna will never enter the war field with his sons and army till I lay down." Suyodhana confirmed that Karna will stand by his word and will never enter war. He asked Bheeshma to plan for a Vyooha.

Bheeshma arrayed the forces in the following manner. Bheeshma and Drona stood with their army facing westwards. On one side, Krupacharya, Asvathaama, and on the other side Kritavarma and Salya stood with their respective armies. On the back side stood Bahlika, Somadatta, Bhoorisrava, with their armies. In the centre, Suyodhana stood. Susarma and others stood in front of Suyodhana. In this manner, Bheeshma arrayed a vyooha.

Pandavas, with their seven akshouhini army, also entered the war field. In the fore front, Yudhishtira was proceeding on his chariot. On either side of Yudhishtira, Bheema and Arjuna were proceeding on their resective chariots. Sri Krishna was driving the chariot of Arjuna. Kapidhvaja was flying on the chariot of Arjuna. Nakula and Sahadeva accompanied Dhritarashtra. The sons of Droupadi, Prativindhya, Srutasoma, Srutakeerti, Sataneeka and Srutasena, and Soubhadra (Abhimanyu) entered the war field with their respective forces.

Drupada, king of Panchala proceeded with his elephant forces. Virata, the Matsya King, yadava King Satyaki, Chekitana, Sikhandi, also entered the war field. Sahadeva, the Magadha King, Dhrushtaketu along with his brother, Ghatotkacha, son of Bheema, accompanied by his Rakshasa army, Kings of Pandya, Kekaya, Saibya, and other kings also entered the war field with their resepctive armed forces.

In this manner, seven akshouhini army of Pandavas reached Samanta Pancakam. In the forefront of the army, stood, Dhrushtadyumna, the Chief of Army.

Yudhishtira, surrounded by the kings of Panchala, Matsya, facing eastwards, addressed the Chiefs of Seven Akshouhinis.

"O Great Warriors! If we win the war, we will grab the entire earth. Otherwise, we will attain heavenly pleasures. We must be ready for anything and everything" said Yudhishtira. All the warriors acclaimed the heroic words of Yudhishtira and blew their respective conches." said Sanjaya to Dhritarashtra.

"O Sanjaya! "Beholding our eleven akhouhini army arrayed in order of battle, how did Yudhishthira, make his counter-array with his forces smaller in number?"asked Dhritarashtra.
Sanjaya said thus: Looking at his forces of seven akshouhinis, Dharmaja asked Arjuna:

"Arjuna! Our forces appear to be smaller than Kouravas. Is it not?" said Yudhishtira.

"Brother Yudhishtira! once Saint Narada told me in the presence of Bheeshma and Drona thus: Even the mighty army of wicked and covetous will never win the army of virtuous, though smaller in number .

Besides that, who will dare to restrain Bheema, endued with great energy, wielding his mace.

Who can conquer our great warriors, Dhrushta-dhyumna and Sikhandi, and other Panchala Kings?

You know pretty well about the prowess of Virata and other Matsya kings.

There are Yadava Kings like Satyaki, Chemitana and others who are fighting on our behalf.

Have you forgotten our youth warriors Abhimanyu and Ghatotkacha.

Above all your virtues, your righteousness and the blessings of Lord Srikrishna will always protect us.

You do not know about you. You are capable of conquering even the celestial bodies. If you get angry,who will stand before you. Therefore, you need not worry about our army, smaller in number." said Arjuna.

"Arjuna! I am very much aroused with your heroic words. You tell Dhrushtadhyumna to plan for a Vyuha equivalent to Kouravas. Arjuna told Dhrushtadyumna about the wish of Dharmaja.

Then Dhrushtadhyumna arrayed the Troups in the following manner:

Bheema, along with Abhimanyu, Upa Pandavas, Nakula and Sahadeva stood at the forefront.

Chekitana, Satyaki, stood on the northern side and Matsya Kings, Panchala Kings, along with their forces stood on southern side. In the middle, Dharmaja stood mounting on his royal elephant. Arjuna was protecting Dharmaja. Sikhandi will always face Bheeshma. On the rear end stood Sahadeva, king of Magadha, Dhrushtaketu and others. Foot soldiers, by many hundreds of thousands and armed with swords, spears proceeded ahead.

Except infants and old, every male took part in the war. Everybody is desirous of victory." said Sanjaya to King Dhrutarashtra.

"Sanjaya! tell me whose force is mightier than the other."asked Dhritarashtra.

"O King! Each side is thinking that their force is mightier. Your son also is thinking that his forces are mightiest. In my opinion, the Pandava army, though smaller in number, is mightiest of all, as Krisha is on their side and Victory is always inherent to Sri Krishna.

Then Krishna and Arjuna blew their conches Pancajanya and Devadatta. On hearing the terrible sound of conches, the Pandava army was aroused. The Kourava army also were beating drums, and blowing cow-horns conches and the uproar made was very loud.

At this juncture, Ddharmaja kept aside his bow and arrows, put off his coat of mail, descended his chariot, proceeded on foot, with folded hands, towards the chariot of Bheeshma.

Beholding this, Pandavas, Krishna, Satyaki and other near and dear of Pandavas were very much annoyed. They also alighted their chariots and followed Dharmaja.

"What is this? Abandoning your brothers, you are proceeding on foot towards enemies. Where will you go, having removed your coat and keeping aside your bow and arrows, leaving all of us? When we are about to fight with our hostile troops, if you go like this, with whom we are to fight?"

In this manner,Bheema, Arjuna, Nakula and Sahadeva were asking Dharmaja. Without speaking a single word, Dharmaja was proceeding towards Bheeshma and Drona.

"His Object is known to me. Having paid his respects to all his elders viz., Bhishma, Drona, Kripa and Salya, and seek their blessings, he will fight. He who fights after paying respects to elders, is sure to obtain victory in the battle" said Krishna.

On hearing these words of Krishna, every body stopped there. Krishna, Arjuna, Bheema, Nakula and Sahadeva only accompanied Dharmaja. Dharmaja went near the chariot of Bheeshma.

The mighty warriors in the Kourava army were looking at Dharmaja.

"Why does Dharmaja come here with fear? He could never have been born in Kshatriya community since he is weak and filled with fear. What will this King say? What will Bhishma say in reply? What will happen?" All were talking among temselves with great curiosity.

Dharmaja went near Bheeshma and bowed before him.

"O mybeloved Grand Father, Beeshma! I am very much annoyed to fight against you. I wish to meet you and take your blessings before entering the battle. Kindly permit me to fight against you." asked Dharmaja.
"O Dharmaja! You have done a good thing. Had you not come to us for blessings, I would have cursed you. Do battle and obtain victory. What else you want? Which you desire to have from us? except fighting on your behalf." asked Bheeshma.

"O my grand father, you fight on behalf of Suyodhana. But kindly do some favour to me" said Dharmaja.

"Tell me what is passing on in your mind" asked Bheeshma.

"O Grand father! How can we defeat you in battle. Tell me." asked Dharmaja.

"Even the celestials themselves cannot defeat me in battle. I do not see any person who can vanquish me in battle?"

"That is the reason why I am asking?" said Dharmaja.

"As long as I am holding bow and arrows in my hand, none can defeat me. This much I can say now. It is not the time now to tell anything more. I will fulfill your desire when you meet me later. You can go now. God bless you" said Bheeshma.

"Please permit me to meet you again. I take leave". So saying Dharmaja proceeded towards the chariot of Drona.
Accompanied by Krishna,and his brothers, Dharmaja went near Drona and saluted him. Dharmaja sought permission from Drona to fight against him and also sought his blessings.

"Dharmaja! Having Sri Krishna as your companion, you need not seek the blessings of others. There is victory where Krishna is." said Drona.

Dharmaja asked Drona to tell him ways and means to defeat him.

"As long as I hold bow and arrows and weapons in my hand, so long victory can never be yours. Whenever I abandon my arms and arrows, you can kill me. Having heard something unpleasant to me, from some one who always tells the truth, I will cast- off my arms in battle and do astrasanyasa."said Drona.

Satisfied with his reply, Dharmaja approached Krupaacharya and sought his permission for war and also blessings for victory.

"Dharmaja! My blessings will always be with you. But none can kill me in war. I am gratified with your coming" said Krupacharya.

Then Dharmaja approached King Salya and sought his blessings.

"Dharmaja! I have to fight for the sake of your enemy. In these circumstances, what help can I render you?" asked Salya.

"O King Salya! please rember the boon given to me earlier" asked Dharmaja.

"O! I remember it. It shall be accomplished. I will weaken the energy of Karna with my words and deeds during crucial times." said Salya.

While Dharmaja was seeking the blessings of elders, Krishna looked at Karna who arrived there only to observe the arrangements of war.

"Karna! It has been heard that from the hatredness of Bhishma, you will not fight in the war. Then why cannot you come and fight on our behalf till Bheeshma's fall." asked Krishna amusingly.

"Though I abstained from war for the present, I will never forget the word given to Suyodhana. That you know." retorted Karna.

Krishna smiled at Karna and accompanied Pandavas.

After walking for a distance, Yudhishtira turned back and addressed the warriors on the side of Kouravas.

"O Great warriors! I appeal to you. If any body is willing to join me, he can come over to me. I will treat him as my own brother" said Dharmaja.

On hearing those words, one Yuyutsa, along with his army, abandoned Kourava Army and requested Dharmaja to permit him to join Pandavas. Dharmaja gladly welcomed him. Yuyutsa, condemning the wicked acts of Suyodhana, joined Pandava Army.

Then Dharmaja boarded his chariot, put on his coat of mail and took out his bow and arrows and was ready for the war. All the others warriors in Pandava army took positions as directed by the ArmyChief Dhrushtadyumna." said Sanjaya to King Dhritarashtra.

(A Humble request to the readers of Maha Bharata. From this point, Bhagavad Gita begins. There are some doubts with regard to Bhagavad Gita.

The first and foremost is whether Bhavad Gita consisting of 700 Slokas is part and parcel of Maha Bharata or was it written separately by Veda Vyasa.

There are Four Vedas: Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, Adharvanaveda. (some may say three).

In Maha Bharata, we can find the stories of several kings, celestial bodies, divine bodies, great sages and saints, Yajnas, yagas, rituals, politicsal science, moral science, and warfare as appeared in Vedas.

In Bhagavad Gita, Veda Vyasa stuffed the essence of all Upanishads in a dialogue form between Krishna and Arjuna in 18 chapters in Bheeshma Parva. Therefore Maha Bharata is called Panchama Veda. Maha Bharata consists of 18 Parvas. Bhagavad Gita consists of 18 chapters. Maha Bharat War extended upto 18 days. .

Hence there is no doubt that Bhagavad Gita is part and parcel of Mahabharata.

Another doubt, lingering in the minds of some, is: How was it possible that Krishna told Arjuna, 700 slokas, in between two armies, while the armies on both sides were ready and eagerly waiting for war.

Here, we have to observe one thing: Whenever there was an occasion, Veda Vyasa tried to teach us moral science or some esoteric doctrines, and essence of Upanishads etc. through some character.

Narada taught Dharmaja political doctrines. Vidura taught Dhritarashtra moral science. Droupadi taught Satya Bhama the principles to be followed by a virtuous lady. Now in Bhagavad Gita Veda Vyasa taught the essence of Upanishads.

Therefore, we have to read, understand and practice the principles enunciated in Gita instead of raising such silly doubts when and where it was taught. If we are able to read, understand and practice atleast one Sloka in Gita, our life will become glorious.

Some great people entertained another doubt that there are several repetitions in Gita and a great saint like Veda Vyasa will never allow such repetitions. They found some slokas as repetitions or subsequently added (prakshiptas) and deleted them and published a new abridged Gita.

This argument also has no legs to stand.

We know our human knowledge is very very limited. We cannot understand anything when once it is taught. We require repeated learning from guru.

Lord Krishna himself said that it was a very very intricate and complicated subject and very difficult to understand. Hence there is nothing wrong in Veda Vyasa repeatedly telling the secred knowledge, time and again, so that we will understand it well.

Some humans raised another doubt that Bhagavad Gita is a Hindu Religious book and is intended to monks and ascetics.

In the preface to Bhagavad Gita by Gita Press, Gorakhpur, it is written thus:

"But owing to lack of understanding of the truth behind this subject, many persons who have only heard the name of the Gita, make this assertion that the books intended only for monks and ascetics and they refrain from placing the book for study before their children out of fear lest through knowledge of the Gita the latter renounce their hearts and homes and turn ascetics themselves. But they should consider the fact that Arjuna, who had due to infactuation, prepared himself to turn away from the duty of a Kshatriya and live on alms, being influenced by the most secret and mysterious teachings of the Gita, lived the life of a householder all his life and performed his duties, how can that very Gita produce this diametrically opposite result?

Therefore, men who desire their own welfare should give up this delusion and with utmost faith and reverence induce their children to study the Gita understanding the meaning and the underlying idea of every verse and while studying and reflecting on it themselves, should, according to the injunction of the Lord, earnestly take to spiritual practice. for obtaining this most valuable human body, it is improper to waste even a single moment of one's time in indulging in transient enjoyments, the roots of sorrow."

I thinsk this passage will dispel all our doubts.

(Besides, extracting the above passage, I have taken number of words from Bhagavad Gita (English version) while translating Bhagavad Gita portion written by Tikkana. I extend my My salutations and acknowledgements to Gita Press, Gorakhpur).

Now, Tikkana, explained Gita in nutshell. Bhagavad Gita starts from here:


Dhritarashtra asked Sanjaya thus:

"Sanjaya! Having gathered on the holy place of Kurushetra, what did my sons and sons of Pandu do?

"O King Dhritarashtra! Having seen the mighty army of Pandavas drawn up for the battle, your son Suyodhana, approached his Guru, Drona and spoke thus:

"Acharya! Drona! Behold the mighty army of Pandavas arrayed by your Sishysa, and the son of Drupada, Drushtadyumna. The army of Pandavas is strong. In his army, there are Satyaki, Drupada, Dhrushta-kethu, Chekitana, Kasi Raja, Purujittu, kuntibhoja, Saibhya, Yudhaa-manyu, Uttamouja, Abhimanyu and Upa-pandavas who are great warriors equivalent to Bhima and Arjuna. They are all eagerly waiting for combat. Pandava Army is well protected by Bheema.

In our army, the principal warriors are yourself, Bhishma, Krupacharya, Asvathaama, Salya, Vikarna, Bhoorisrava and other great warriors. They are capable of launching many Astras and Sastras and they have staked their lives for my sake in this war. Our Army, protected by Bheeshma is unconquerable. Hence you stand by the side of Bheesham and protect him" said Suyodhana.
On hearing these words, Bheeshma, to cheer up Suyodhana, roared like a lion and blew his conch. The other generals also blew their respective conches. The tumultous sound of conches, kettledrums, tabors, and trumpets blared suddenly.

Krishna blew his conch Panchajanya, Arjuna blew his conch Devadatta, Bheema blew his conch poundra, Yudhishtira blew his conch Ananta Vijaya, Nakula and Sahadeva blew their conches, Sughosha, manipushpaka and the kings of Panchala, Virata, Satyaki, Dhrushtadhumna, Sikhandi and other generals of each akshouhini blew their respective conches. Arjuna took Gandeeva into his hands and twanged his bow string. He looked at the mighty army of Kouravas.

"Krishna! I should know with whom I have to fight. Hence place my chariot between the two armies."asked Arjuna.

Accordingly, Krishna drove his chariot and staioned it in between both armies. Arjuna saw his kith and kin in both armies, his sons, grand sons, uncles, teachers, maternal uncles, brothers, cousins, nephews and grand nephews, and even his friends, father-in-laws and other well wishers and could not control his deep compassion and spoke thus:

"Krishna! only at the instance of Suyodhana, this mass massacre happened. I am very much depressed on seeking my friends and relatives on both sides. My body is shivering. Gandiva slips from my hand. My legs are trembling. I cannot fight.

For whose sake I desire to acquire this earth by means of this war, for whose pleasure I am engaged in this war, those are standing before me with an intention to stake their lives in this war. They are ready to die. The royal pleasures, acquired by killing my grand fathers, uncles, sons, fathers, brothers, Gurus, Sishyas, friends, will ever satisfy me. Will my name and fame spread on all four sides? We are killing our relatives on their side. They are also killing their relatives on our side. What remains? No, I do not agree for this sinful war.

Even for the sovereignty over the fourteen worlds, how can I do this war. Krishna, let them do it. My mind is not wiling to fight with them. Without thinking about the dire consequences, with utmost greediness they are resorting to destroy their own race. This fact is known to you and to me.

Knowing fully well the wild consequences of this war, what benefit we derive by killing them mercilessly. Krishna! if the race is destroyed, the age long family traditions disappear, virtues are lost and varna sankara(intermixture of castes) will happen. The destroyers of race will go to hell. Why should I acquire such a sin?

With the greediness and covetousness for the sake of kingdom, I cannot kill my kith and kin and I do not kill" said Arjuna in a distressed mood.
Beholding Arjuna who was overwhelmed with pity, whose eyes were filled with tears and who was full of sorrow, Krishna spoke thus:

"Arjuna, now we are at war. At this crucial time, how has this infatuation overtaken you. This kind of cowardness does not befit you. This is for unwise, not for you. Raise like a hero. Drive away your cowardness. Be ready for war." said Krishna.

"Krishna! Bheeshma and Drona are fit to be worshipped not to be pained with arrows. Is it manliness to kill noble and revered souls. It is better to live on alms in this world instead of killing them in the battle and enjoying royal pleasures.

Krishna! those standing before me are no other than the sons of my paternal uncle. How can I kill them?

Krishna! all my limbs are burning. Even if I am endowed with the power of Indra, my grief will not be extinguished. I cannot fight with them. I cannot kill my relatives, friends and Gurus. Because, there will be no difference, whether we win or they win. I am very much distressed. My mind is puzzled. I am unable to decide whcih is good and which is bad. I am your deciple. I pray you to show me the way out."requested Arjuna with folded hands.

With a smiling face, Krishna replied thus:
" You grieve for those who should not be grieved and yet speak like a wise and learned but wise and learned do not sorrow over the dead or living. You are being annoyed due to your ignorance. If you are wise and aware of truth, all these griefs will vanish.

O Partha! boyhood, youth and old age are attributed only to this body. As we remove soiled clothes and wear new clothes, we leave this body when it is worn and attains another body. The wisemen do not get deluded about this. The birth and death is attributed only to this body not to Atma. Atma is eternal. You can cut this body with swords and arrows but not Atma. Atma is imperishable. Similarly, this body is not eternal.

As these are the attributes of Atma, you need not grieve for anybody. The unwise may say that Atma will perish along with the body. Some may say that the soul is capable of being killed and others may say that the soul will be killed by others. Both are ignorant. The soul neither kills others nor killed by others. Atma is indestructible. None can destroy Atma.

Purusha is none other than mine. I am Purushottama. The root cause for the plealsures or sorrows in the outside word is egoism. Therefore, shed your egoism and perform your duty consciously. Your duty is performing war. There is nothing more welcome for a man of warrior class than a righteous war. War is an open gate way to heaven. Therefore, stand up, perform your duty, and determine to fight. You have to offer the fruits of your actions to God. He who acts, offering all the fruits of his actions to God, and shaking off attachment, remains untouched by sin, as the lotus leaf by water." said Krishna to Arjuna.

Then Arjuna raised number of doubts and Krishna patiently clarified them with his teachings.

"Krishna! You have spoken, out of kindness to me, most profounding words of spiritual wisdom. With this, the delusion of mine has entirely disappeared. I desire to see your divine form possessed of wisdom, glory, energy, strength, valour and effulgence. O Krishna! if you think that it can be seen by me, reveal to me Your imperishable form." prayed Arjuna.

"Arjuna! Behold my manifold, multifarious, divine forms of various colours and shapes, in hundreds and thousands, which you have never seen before. But you cannot see me with this ordinary human vision. I bless you with divine division with which you behold my divine power of Yoga."

Having spoken thus, Krishna, the supreme Master of yoga, forthwith manifested to Arjuna his supremely glorious divine form.

Arjuna saw the Supreme Deity, with effulgence of thousand suns, infinite and full of all wonders. Arjuna, with hair erected on his body, reverentially bowed his head before the divine Lord and with joined hands spoke thus:
"O Lord! I see within your body, all Gods, different beings, divine bodies, Brahma, Siva and all sages and saints and celestial serpants. I see you endowed with numerious faces, arms, bellies, mouths, eyes and having innumerable forms, extending on all sides. I feel it a wonder. I could not see the beginning, middle or end of your divine form. Your splendour glowing all around, having the brilliance of blazing fire and sun, hard to gaze at you.

You are the rootcause for all the entire unending universe. You are all pervasive, earth and space. There is no space where you are not there. Sun and Moon are your eyes. Rudras, Adityas, Maruts, Vasuvus, great sages and saints, plenty in number, are praising you. Siddha, Saadhya, Gandharvas are amazingly looking at your magnificent divine form.

Seeing this stupendous and dreadful form of Yours, I am terror stricken. I am frightened and agitated. All the sons of Dhritarashtra along with Bheeshma, Drona, Krupa and other warriors and kings are entering Your body. Please be compassionate towards me and tell me about you" prayed Arjuna.

"O Arjuna! I am the supreme being. I am Kala, the destroyer of all worlds. I am here to destroy all these warriors. There is none here to be killed by you. Bheeshma, Drona, Krupa, and others have alrelady been killed by me. You are only instrumental in killing them and conquering them. Therefore, stand up. Fear not. Fight with your enemy." said Krishna.

On hering these words, Arjuna was trembling and bowed before Krishna with folded hands.

"O Krishna! You are Vayu, You are Varuna, You are Sun, You are Moon, and you are Agni. You are the Supreme Lord of All worlds. You are eternal, endless, omnipotent, omnipresent. Unaware of your greatness, I called you as my friend, my relative, a yadava and belittled you while playing, taking food, and either alone or in the presence of others. Kindly forgive me and all my faults as father forgives his son." prayed Arjuna.

"Having seen your wonderous form, which was never seen before, my heart is filled with joy, at the same time, my mind is tormented with fear. O Lord! be kind towards me and show me your soft divine form and make me happy." prayed Arjuna.

Accordingly Krishna appeared before Arjuna in his original form.

"O Arjuna! I have shown you, through my yogic power, this supreme, effulgent, primal and infinite cosmic form which has neverbeen seen before by anyone other than you. None can see it either through study of Vedas or rituals or austere penances. Seeing such a dreadful form of mine, dont be perturbed or perplexed. With a fearless and tranquil mind, behold once again the same four armed form of mine bearing conch, mace and lotus."

"O Lord! seeing this gentle human form of yours, I have regained my composure and my mind attained normalcy." said Arjuna.

"Arjuna, he who performs all his duties for My sake, depends on me, is devoted to me. He who has no attachments and is free from malice towards all beings, reaches me. " said Krishna.

In this manner, Krishna taught Arjuna the essence of Upanishads and dispelled all his doubts from his mind.

"Arjuna! I told you the most sacred and secret knowledge. Having known this, you can do whatever you like. I will tell one more secret. Relinquishing all your dharmas, take refuge in me with pure heart. I will absolve you of all sins. Worry not. You can tell this secret knowledge of truth to those who is endowed with austerity, devotion and willing to hear. Dont tell this to those who lacks these qualities.

Arjuna! have you heard this secret knowledge? Has your delusion originated from your ignorance been destroyed?"asked Krishna.

"O Lord Krishna! By your grace, my delusion has been dispelled and I have gained wisdom. I am free from all doubts. Having seen your mighty Visva Roopa, my mind has become strong and stable. Command me. I will do as you say." said Arjuna prostrating before Krishna.

Arjund stood up and took his Gandeeva and arrows and was ready for war with firm and stable mind." said Sanjaya to Dhritarashtra.

"O King Dhritarashtra! having been blessed with the divine vision by the grace of Veda Vyasa, I also heard in person this supremely esoteric conversation between Krishna and Arjuna.

Remembering also, again and again, that most wonderful form of Sri Krishna, great is my wonder and I rejoice over and over again.

O King! whereever there is Bhagavan Sri Krishna, the Lord of Yoga, and whereever there is Arjuna, the wielder of Gandiva, victory, glory,and unfailing righteousness will surely be there." said Sanjaya with greatest devotion.

Having heard all these things through Sanjaya, Dhritarashtra said:

"O Sanjaya! Narrate the incidents of war between the two mighty armies standing one against the other in Kurukshetra, in detail" asked Dhritarashtra.

Sanjaya continued to say:

"O King Dhritarashtra! At the instance of Suyodhana, Dussasana advanced with his troops, with Bheeshma at their head and the Pandavas also advanced with cheerful hearts, having Bhima at their head.

Then leonine shouts, clamorous uproars, blare of horns and the sound of drums arose in both armies.

Your sons Dussaasana, Durmukha Dushpraha, Durmarsha, Vivimsati, Vrushasena, Chitrasena, Vikarna and Purumitra surrounded Bheema.

Nakula, Sahadeva, Abhimanyu, sons of Droupadi, and Dhrushtadyumna rushed against your sons and showered arrows on them.

Both armies advanced against each other. The tumultous war began.

With their chariots, horses, elephants and soldiers, kouravas and Pandvas were combatting with each other. Bheeshma was going round the entire battle field and encouraging his troops. He was shining like midday sun.

Arjuna, blew his conch Devadatta and rushed against Bheeshma. Both Arjuna and Bheeshma, desirous of killing each other, were fighting.

Satyaki rushed against Kritavarma, and during their fight, the bodies of both the warriors drenched with blood.
Abhimanyu attacked King of Kosala. King of Kosala killed the charioteer and the horses of Abhimanyu. Abhimanyu broke his bow and his flag and injured him on his vital parts.

Bheeshma rushed against Bheema and both were fighting fiercely.

Nakula attacked Dussaasana. Nakula cut off the bow of Dussaasana and pierced him with many sharp arrows.

Durmukha was fighting with Sahadeva. Sahadeva cut off his sharp arrows and killed the steeds tied to the chariot and also the chariot driver.

Yudhishtira rushed against Salya. Yudhishtira broke the bow of Salya. Salta took another bow and showered arrows on Yudhishtira.

Dhrushtadyumna jumed on Drona. Drona broke his bow into three pieces. Dhrushtadyumna took out another bow and shot 14 arrows on vital parts of Drona.

Sahadeva ( king of Magadha) was fighting with Bhoorisrava. Their combat resembles the fight between Indra and Vrutraasura.

Dhrutakethu rushed against Bahlika.

Raakshasa Warrior Alambas encountered Ghatotkacha, son of Bheema.
Powerful Sikhandi rushed against Asvathaama, deeply piercing a keen edged shaft and caused him to tremble. In return, Asvathaama also pierced dreadful arrows into his heart.

Heroic Bhagadatta rushed against King Virata and showered arrows covering the sky.

King of Kekaya attacked Krupacharya and they broke the flags of each other. They got down their chariots, armed with sharp swords, fought with each other. Beholding this, Jayadhradha and King Drupada arrived there in aid of those two heroes.

Vikarna was fighting with Yudhaamanyu.

Chekitaana rushed against Susarma and pierced his entire body with his sharp arrows.

Sakuni was fighting with Prati Vindhya, son of Yudhishtira.

Bhima's son Srutasoma was fighting with Sudakshina, king of Kambhoja.

Arjuna's son Iravanta rushed against Srutaayuvu and broke his chariot. In return Srutaayuvu broke the chariot of Iravanta. Both got down their chariots and boarded other chariots and again engaged in direct combat with each other.
Vinda and Anuvinda rushed against King Kunti Bhoja and his sons and showered arrows on him.

Five Kekaya kings attacked Five Gandhara kings.

Uttara Kumara son of King Virata was attacked by Deergabaahu, brother of Suyodhana.

Sataaneeka son of Nakula was fighting with Ulooka.

In this manner both the troops were fighting with each other. Thousands of single combats took place between Warriors on chariots, Warriors on elephants and horses, and also soldiers fighting on foot. The battle became furious. Elephants were rushing against elephants, chariots against chariots, horses against horses and so on. The conflict became confused and fierce in extreme. The infuriated elephants were running of their own accord crushing the foot soldiers under their feet. The arrows were showering like rain. Dual fights with swords, maces, spears were going on. The battle field was drenched with blood everewhere.

Even if one hand is cut, the warriors were fighting with another hand. Even if one leg is cut, they are jumping on the enemy with another leg and were fighting with them. Even if the head is severed, the headless bodies are jumping on the enemy and severing their heads. Even in the faces of severed heads, the heriosm is clearly visible. Even if their elephants, horses or chariots are killed or broken, the warriors are boarding another chariot and continuing the fight. Even if they are inujured, they are rushing to the help of their friends and relaties. Even if the enemy is his friend and relative, they are fighting with them and severing their heads mercilessly.

When the chariot driver is killed, the steeds tied to the chariots are running here and there dragging the chariot. Under the wheels of those chariots, several foot soldiers were being crushed. Elephants were running and crushing the fallen soldiers under their feet.

Half of the first day battle was over. The midday sun was shining. Provoked by Suyodhana, Durmukha, Krupacharya, Kritavarma, Salya and Vivimsati, were standing on either side of Bheeshma and driving away Pandava army. Protected by those five warriors, Bhishma penetrated into Pandava army and tearing them into pieces. Kings of Chedi, Panchala, Kekaya were unable to stand before Bhishma.

Beholding severed heads, broken bows, fallen bodies, broken chariots, fleeing soldiers, Pandava warriors trembled. None was there to rush against Bhishma. The Pandava army was running and fleeing hither and thither.

At this juncture, Abhimanyu came to their rescue. He struck Salya with five arrows. He pierced the heart of Kritavarma with one arrow. He killed Durmukha with another arrow. He chased Vivimsati and broke his bow. Abhmanyu killed the steeds of Kripacharya's chariot. Then Abhimanyu jumed against Bheeshma. He shot powerful arrows into the whole body of Bheeshma.

All stopped fighting and were looking at Abhimanyu and his prowess. Bhishma also thought for a while whether that boy is Arjuna or his son. He is resembling Arjuna in all resepcts. "Oh wonderful! he is not an ordinary warrior" thought Bhishma.

Bheeshma cut the flag of Abhimanyu with three arrows and killed his Soota with another arrow. The remaining five warriors also showered arrows on Abhimanyu.

Abhimanyu became furious. He cut all the arrows in the middle and gave a powerful retort.. He cut the flag of Bhishma with one arrow. Pandava army acclaimed the act of Abhimanyu. There was some confusion in Kourava army.

In the meanwhile, roaring like a lion, Bheema arrived there in aid of Abhimanyu. Bheeshma became furious. He cut the flag of Bheema. Bheema shot three arrows against Bheeshma. He shot eight arrows against Krupacharya and Kritavarma. Bheema rushed against Salya. The other warriors accompanying Salya attacked Bheema. Bheema killed their chariot drivers, steeds and broke their chariots. Satyaki, Dhrushtadyumna, Kekaya kings, Virata and his sons, Uttara Kudmara arrived there to help Bheema.

Uttara Kumara with his elephant forces, rushed against Salya. Uttara Kumara's elephant broke the chariot of Salya with its trunk and killed the steeds tied to the chariot.

Salya grew angry. Salya darted one powerful arrow called Sakti aiming at the heart of UttaraKumara. The arrow with great speed cut the coatmail of Uttara kumara and pierced into his heart. Uttara Kumara lost his senses and fell down from the elephant on ground and died.

Salya picked up a big sword and cut the trunk of that elephant and killed it. Salya jumed into the chariot of Kritavarma like a lion.

Beholding the killing of his own brother, Uttara Kumara, his brother Sankha became furious. Sankha rushed against Salya with his elephant forces. Sankha's followers fell upon Salya all at a time.

On seeing this, Bheeshma, along with some warriors, came in aid of Salya. The followers of Sankha fled away unable to attack Bheeshma.

Arjuna immediately rushed towards Bheeshma in aid of Sankha, and stood between Bheeshma and Sankha. Arjuna and Bheeshma engaged in a fierce battle.

Salya, jumped out of the chariot of Kritavarma, took his mace, and broke the chariot of Sankha. Sankha jumped out of his chariot, fled away and hid behind the chariot of Arjuna.

Bheeshma, leaving Sankha, rushed against Drupada and his army.

Like a forest consumed by fire in midsummer, the troops of Drupada were consumed by Bheeshma like fire. Bheeshma stood in the battle field like a blazing fire and like midday sun. The combatants of the Pandavas were not able to even look at Bhishma. Bheeshma was riding on his chariot in different directions, appearing himself anywhere and everywhere, like a blazing fire, destroying the enemy combatants.

After finishing Panchala Army, he rushed against Virata Army. When the troops of Pandavas were being routed out and crushed all over the battle field, the sun set and moon rose to behold the prowess of Bhishma who was born in his Vamsa. Both sides stopped war for that day. Kourava army was jubilant and the Pandavas retired from battle field with gloomy faces." said sanjaya to Dhritarashtra, the important events of first day war. Thus Vaisampaayana told Janamejaya the story of Mahabharata.