Anusasanika parva
First Chapter

In Naimisaranya, on the occasion of Satra Yaga, Sooti told Sounaka and other sages and saints, the story of Mahabharata as told by Vaisampayana to Janamejaya on the occasion of Sarpa yaga.

.Dharmaja asked Bhishma thus: “O Grandsire Bhishma! you taught me several Dharmas. Still my mind is agitated. I killed several of my relatives in the war. On account of `me only, you are now lying on arrow bed. How can I remain peaceful, after commiting several such sinful acts. O Grandisre! I requested Suyodhana many a time to agree for amicable settlement and rule our respective shares of Kingdom peacefully. But he was adament. What can I do? In fact, I was also so adament; otherwise I would have given away the entire kingdom to Suyodhana. Either of these things would have averted the great war. We both were enraged with anger, result being the war, mass massacre and total destruction. There is no use of repenting for the past, except weeping for the great loss. How can I remain peaceful? Tell me.” Dharmaja was lamenting for the loss of his relatives and friends.

“O Dharmana! dont feel sorry. Every thing is destined by fate. None can avert the fate. After all we are humans. We are not responsible for anything. Nothing is in our hands. In this connection I narrate you a story.

In a village there was a brahmin lady, called Goutami. Her son died due to snake bite. She was lamenting for the untimely death of her son. Meanwhile, one hunter caught the snake and brought it before the woman.

“Oh mom! this is the snake which killed your son. Tell me how to kill it. Either by cutting it into pieces or crushing with a stone. Your wish.” said the hunter.

“Kindly rleave the snake. Let it go free” asked the brahmin lady.

“No mom. This snake killed your son.” said the hunter.

“No. my son was killed due to fate. Lamenting for his death or killing the snake is quite unwise. Virtuous and wise people never resort to such acts, except forgetting the past and think about future. Even if you kill that snake, my son will never come alive. Hence leave the snake.” said the brahmin lady.

“Mom. I am a rustic. I cannot understand your words. I know only revenge. Hence I kill this snake.” said the hunter.

“Your name is Arjunaka means person of whitish complexion. You are pure and innocent. How can you behave curelly. How can I accept this kind of nonviolence.” said brahmin lady.

“Mom! Listen. Killing the creatures which harm people is not a sin.” said the hunter.

“Killing even an enemy who was imprisoned is against Dharma.” said the brahmin lady.

“Mom! Is it not dharma to save others from snake bite by killing this snake? Did Devendra not kill Vritrasura? Did Maha Siva not destroy the Yajna of Daksha? While those are Dharmas, killing this snake also is Dharma.” argued the hunter.

After hearing the above conversation between brahmin woman and hunter, the snake told them thus: “I am not at fault in killing this boy. Only on the directions of Goddess Mruthyu, I killed this boy. I have no anger or hatredness upon this boy.” said the snake.

“Oh is it so. Therefore, you are a tool in the hands of Mruthyu. Then I should certainly kill you.” said the hunter.

“O hunter! listen. Potter turns the wheel for making pots. If the pot is broken, is it the fault of the wheel or potter. I have no power to kill anybody. If I am seen by humans, I will be killed mercilessly.” said the snake.

“Well said serpant! If anybody shoots another person with an arrow, will that person keeps quiet by discussing whether it is the fault of the arrow or the person who shoots. Or whether he cuts that arrow in between with another arrow. Cutting the arrow rushing towards him is not a sin. Do you kill this innocent boy on the pretext that you are ordered by Mruthyu. Even if you are cut into pieces, it is not a sin. Not only you, all the snakes which are the tools in the hands of Mruthyu shall be killed mercilessly.” said the hunter with great anger.

The snake smiled and said: “O hunter! On behalf of the masters, Purohits perform Yajnas and Yagas. But the result of Yajnas and Yagas goes to the master not to the Purohit. Therefore, the sin accrued by killing this boy goes to Mruthyu not to me.” said snake.

Meanwhile, Goddess Mruthyu arrived there. Beholding the snake, Mruthyu said: “Oh snake! you have not committed any sin. You killed that boy as per my directions. But I am also not at fault as I was directed by Yama to get this boy killed through you. I simply followed his direction. You also dutifully followed my direction. Therefore, we both are not responsible for the death of this boy. Besides that, sun, moon, agni, sky, water, wind and the entire nature is under the control of Yama. He is the controlling authority. We acted according to his directions.” said Mruthyu.

“O Mruthyu! same thing I said. I amnot capable of deciding whether it is your fault or fault of Yama. I have no such capacity.” said snake.

Turning to the hunter, snake said: “Have you heard the words of Mruthyu. Still you say I am at fault. It is not proper on your part to find fault with me. Hence leave me.” prayed the snake.

“ No No. Yourself and this Mruthyu are sinful as you are taking away the lives of humans. I am not afraid of both of you. Your death is certain in my hands.” said hunter.

Meanwhile, Yama arrived there. “I have come here to clear off your doubts. The fact is either myself or Mruthyu, or for that matter, this snake are not responsible for the death of this boy. His death depends upon his past deeds. Because, as per the results of past deeds, birth, death, joys and sorrows occur in the present birth. Non can avert them. Even Parama Siva cannot avoid undergoing the result of his own karma. After all, this boy is nothing. Hence, dont blame anybody for the death of this boy.” said Yama.

When her words are repeated by Yama, Brahmin lady said: “This is nothing but the result of my past deeds. I am destined to undergo this kind of grief. None need be blamed for my fate. Therefore, leave that snake.” said the Brahmin lady.

After hearing the teachings of Yama and Brahmin lady, hunter became wiser and left that snake.

Therefore, Dharmaja! you are not at all responsible for the killing of your own kith and kin in war. They died as per the results of their own past deeds. You need not lament for their death any more.” said Bhishma.

“O grandsire Bhishma! can anybody abandon fear of death, even though he is in the bondage of Samsara.” asked Dharmaja.

“Oh Dharmaja! nothing is impossible for a virtuous man having determination of mind. In this connection I narrate a story:

In the past, there was a called Duryodhana. River Narmada fell in love with him. River Narmada, in human form, married him. They begot a beautiful daughter called Sudarsana. Her father worships Agni daily. He deputed Sudarsana to look after his needs at the time of worshipping Agni. While Sudarsana was moving around him, Agni fell in love with her. One day, Agni expressed his desire to marry her. She told Agni to approach her parents.

Duryodhana intended to perform one Yaga. At that time, he worshipped Brahmins and gave them alms. Agni, in the disguise of Brahmin, also stood in the que to receive alms. While Duryodhana offered alms to Agni he expressed his desire to marry his daughter. Duryodhana was reluctant to give his daughter to a poor brahmin. Agni grew angry. He reduced his flames during Yaga, inspite of chanting several Mantras. Agni expressed his desire to Ritviks to marry Sudarsana. Ritviks informed Duryodhana about Agni’s desire.
“Oh what is this? Agni would have exprssed his desire directly to me. I thought he was a Brahmin. Tell Agni I am agreeable.” said Duryodhana.

Later Sudarsana was given in marriage to Agni. Agni and Sudarsana begot a son called Sudarsana. After marriage, Sudarsana begot a son called Oghavanta. Oghavanta begot a son and daughter called Ogharadha and Oghavati respectively. Oghavati attained marriageable age.

Oghavathi was given in marriage to Sudarsana, who is no other than her grand father. After marriage, Sudarsana took a vow that he will conquer death while adopting Grihastha dharma. He was living at Kurushetra along with his wife, Oghavati. One day, Sudarsana told his wife Oghavati: “I like worshipping guests. Whether I am in the house or not, you have to receive and worship guests on my behalf. The Grihasthas attain greater regions when they satisfy their guests, in full. Therefore, whatever be the desire of our guests, you have to fulfil it without hesitation. Following the footsteps of husband is the main virtue of the wife.” said Sudarsana.
Oghavati gladly accepted the words of her husband.

One day, Sudarsana went into forest to fetch fuel. At that time one guest arrived at their house. Oghavathi invited him and offered him water and fruits. After eating sumptuously, the guest asked her to share bed with him. He also warned her that satisfying the guest is the foremost duty of a Grihastu. Oghavathi requested the guest to have some other desire except sharing bed. The guest was adament and did not agree for anything except herself.

Oghavati remembered the words of her husband. If she accepts the desire of the guest, her chastity will be spoiled. If she refuses, it would amount to violating the command of her husband. At last she agreed to share bed with the guest. The guest took her inside.

At that time, Sudarsana arrived at the house and called his wife. There was no reply. The guest shut the mouth of Oghavati not to speak. Sudarsana repeatedly called his wife for which the guest replied: “You wife is attending on the guest. You know much better about honoring guests. Hence be patient. Dont be angry.” said the guest from inside.

“O great man! I am very happy that my wife is attending on the guest. Where the guests are satisfied fully, that house is purified. I will wait outside till the worship of guest is completed.” said Sudarsana.

Then a voice was heard from the sky: “Sudarsana is blessed. He is respected by one and all”.

At that time, the guest appeared in his splendid and glorious form. “O Sudarsana! I am Dharma Devata. (Deity of Dharma). I have come to test your mind and your devotion towards guests. Mruthyu is waiting to kill you whenever you transgress dharma. But you conquered Mruthyu. You have alrlelady conquered the six rivals viz., Kama, krodha, lobha, moha, mada and matsarya. Your wife is your virtuous follower. You both are eligible to go to higher regions with this physical body whenever you wish. With half of the power of your Tapas, your wife Oghavati transforms into a holy river and flows on this holy land. With the rest of the power of your Tapas, she remains with you in human form and serves you. My desire to share bed with your wife is all myth created to acclaim your greatness to the outside world. Your wife is pure and no harm is caused to the chastity of your wife. This is the truth.” so saying Dharma Devata disappeared.
O Dharmaja! this is the story of River Oghavati. There is no other Dharma to a Grihastu except worshipping his guests. “ said Bhishma.

“OGrandsire Bhishma! I got one doubt. Will, other castes other than Brahmins, by virtue of their righteous character and virtuous deeds, attain Brahminism?” asked Dharmaja.

“Dharmaja! Attaining Brahminism is too difficult.Even after several births, one cannot attain brahminism. I narrate a story in this connection. In the past, there was a brahmin boy called Matanga. He was going to attend one Yajna. On the way, Matanga beat one donkey lad with a stick. The donkey lad went and reported to her mother about the beating.

“O child! He is a low caste cruel fellow. Hence he beat you.” said the mother.

Matanga knows the language of donkey. He was surprised. “Donkey did not abuse me ` unnecessarily.There must be something behind my birth, otherwise the donkey would not have called me as lower caste cruel fellow.”. He went to the mother-donkey and asked her about his birth secret. “O brahmin youth! you were born to a brahmin mother through a barber. Hence you are not brahmin.” said donkey. The brahmin youth, Matanga, returned to his house and informed the same to his father.

“O father! I was born to a brahmin woman through a barber. I am not a brahmin. I perform tapas and attain brahminism” so saying Matanga went to forests for Tapas. He did Tapas for so long years.

Indra appeared before him. “Why you are doing Tapas. What is your desire?” asked Indra.

“O Indra!I should attain Brahminism” prayed Matanga.

“O Matanga! Brahminism is a great thing. Other castes cannot be attributed with Brahminism. Hence choose any other thing?” said Indra.

“O Indra! It seems you are not capable of gawarding brahminism to me . You can go. I continue my tapas.” said Matanga. Indra went away.

Again Matanga did Tapas by standing on one leg for hundred years. Again Indra appeared before him.

“Matanga! you are so adamant. Sudra dies if he does Tapas. You are not eligible to perform Tapas.Take care. Do you know how one attains Brahminism?

One Chandala becomes Sudra if he does Tapas ten times more than what you have so far done.

A sudra becomes Vysya if he does Tapas one hundred times more than what he has already done.

A Vysya becomes Kshatriya if he does Tapas thousand times more than what he had already done.

A kshatriya becomes an unscrupulous Brahmin if he does Tapas Ten thousand times more than what he had already one.

An unscrupulous brahmin becomes a virtuous Brahmin if he does Tapas one lakh times more than he had already one, that too after controlling sense organs, mind and following truth and non-violence.

Brahiminism cannot be attained by just doing Tapas for hundred years. After performing above Tapas in the above manner and attaining Brahminism, it is very difficult to keept it up. Out of greediness, lust, anger, desires, one abanons virtuous life and becomes wrong and wicked. Again to take birth as Brahmin, it may take thousands of years. Why you aspire for such a difficult task viz., Brahminism and invite your own destruction. Hence leave this Tapas and receive my gifts.” warned Indra.

Matanga kept quiet. Indra went away, not able to convince him. Matanga again commenced his Tapas. He trannsformed into a skeleton covered with skin. While his body was about to fall, Indra again came to his rescue.

“What is this Matanga! Have you not been told earlier. Brahminism is like a tiger. It swallows you. Dont play with it. Choose whatever you like?” asked Indra. At last, Matanga accepted Indra’s offer.

“O Matanga! you may enjoy all sensual pleasures in the name of Chandra Deva while beautiful ladies worshipping you. You satisfy your lust and sensual desires like a free bird.” Indra blessed Matanga.” said Bhishma to Dharmaja.

“O Gransire Bhishma! if attaining Brahminism is such a difficult task, how Visvamitra, a Kshatriya was transformed into Brahmin?” asked Dharmaja.

“O Dhamaja! There was a Kshatriya King called Gaadhi in the clan of Jahnu, father of River Jahnavi (Ganga). Satyavati was the daughter of Gadhi. Saint Rucheeka, born in Bhrigu clan, intended to marry Satyavi. Gadhi did not agree for his proposal by putting a condition that if Rucheeka offers one thousand white horses with one ear black, he can marry Satyavati. Rucheeka agreed for the condition and went in search of white horses with one ear black.

Rucheeka approached Varuna who agreed to supply such horses. On the advice of Varuna, Rucheeka went to the banks of Ganges . He sat there in Padma Aasana and prayed Ganges for grant of one hundred one ear black, white horses. Next moment, such horses stood before him. Since then that place was known as Asva Teertha. Rucheeka gave those horses to Gadhi and married his daughter, Satyavati.

Years passed. Rucheeka performed a Yajna for the sake of children. Mother of Satyavati also requested her daughter to recommend her case also for children. Rucheeka performed Yajna and put the Havis in two distinct vessels. Rucheeka showed both the vessels to Satyavati and said:

“O Satvati! you consume the Havis in this vessel. You beget a Satvika son who is a virtuous brahmin with glory. You give the other vessel to your mother. If she consumes the Havis in that vessel, she begets a son with Rajasa qualities. Then you embrace a Medi tree and let your mother embrace Ravi tree. You both beget children.” said Rucheeka.

While consuming the Havis, there was a confusion. Satyavati consumed Havis intended for her mother and her mother consumed Havis intended for Satyavati. While embracing trees also, such confusion prevailed. In course of time, they both became pregnant. Rucheeka realised the mistake.
One day Rucheeka told his wife Satyavati: “O Satyavati! While consuming Havis, you exchanged your vessels. Hence, you are bearing in your womb, a cruel kshatriya instead of a virtuous brahmin.” said Rucheeka.

On hearing this, Satyavati trembled. “No, It cannot be. You are a virtuous brahmin. How can you become father of a cruel kshatriya. Kindly avoid this calamity with your power.” prayed Satyavati.

“I can postpone the evil for one generation. Now you beget a virtuous brahmin. But his son i.e, your grandson will be a cruel kshatriya.” said Rucheeka.

Accordingly, Satyavati gave birth to Saint Jamadagni. Jamadagni’s son was Parasu Rama who vanquished the entire Kshatriya community.

Wife of Gadhi i.e., mother of Satyavati, gave birth to Visvamitra who later transformed into a virtuous brahmin.

Dharmaja! though Visvamitra was born as Kshatriya, brahminism sprouted in his mind. Though Parasurama was born as Brahmin, he adopted Kshatra.” said Bhishma to Dharmaja.

“O Grandsire Bhishma! In this connection, I remember a story of Veetahavya who attained Brahmanism. Kindly tell me that story in detail.” asked Dharmaja.

“O Dharmaja! King Haihaya, a kshatriya, was born in Saryati clan. He was the King of Vatsa kingdom. Haihaya was also called Veetahavya. He married ten wives and begot one hundred sons. The sons of Haihaya waged war against King Haryasva, king of Kasi and killed him. Later his son, Sudeva was made the King of Kasi. Sons of Haihaya again went against Sudeva and killed him. Then Devodasa, son of Sudeva was made the king of Kasi. Sons of Haihaya invited Devodasa for war and defeated him. Devodasa fled away with fear and sought refuge at Saint Bharadwaja. Devodasa told Bhardwaja the entire sotry of their fore fathers’ defeat at the hands of son of Haihaya.

“Dont worry. I bless you with a son who kills them in retaliation.” said Bharadwaja. Under the guidance of Bharadwaja, Devodasa performed Putrakameshti Yaga, as a result of which he begot a son called Pratyardhana. Pratyardhana, with the blessings of Bharadwaja learnt Vedas, Sastras, archery skills etc. Devodasa enthroned him as King of Kasi. With the permission of his father Devodasa,Pratyardhana invited Haihaya’s sons for war and killed all of them.

Then Pratyardhana rushed against Haihaya. Unable to resist Pratyardhana, Haihaya fled away and sought refuge with Saint Bhrigu. Bhrigu asked Haihaya to join his sishyas as a Brahmin. Pratyardhana arrived there in search of Haihaya. Pratyardhana saluted Bhrigu.

“What made you to come over here?” asked Bhrigu.

Pratyardhana told Bhrigu about the killing of his father and fore father by the sons of Haihaya and that he has come to kill Haihaya. On hearing the above, Bhrigu said: “O Pratyardhana! there are none here who belong to Kshatriya community. They are all Brahmins, my sishyas.”

On hearing these words, Partyardhana gladly replied: “O Saint Bhrigu! the purpose of my arrival is accomplished. You said Haihaya is not a Kshatriya, which results in excommunicating Haihaya from Kshatriya community. That much I want. I hope you never speak falsehood. Bless me.” saluting Bhrigu, Pratyardhana went away.

From then onwards, Haihaya abandoned Kshatra, attained Brahmanism and did great tapas and begot a son Kritsamada. In his clan, Suteja, Varchasa, Nihavya, Satya, Santa, Sravasa, Damasa, Prakasa, Vaageendra, Pramati, Ruru, Samuda, Sunaka, Sounaka were born. A new Brahmin clan commenced from Haihaya, also called Veetahavya.” told Bhishma to Dharmaja.

“O Grandsire! Amongst divine effort and manual effort, which is great? Tell me.” asked Dharmaja.

“O Dharmaja! in the past, the same question was asked by Vasishta. I tell you what Brahma said in answer to that question.

Earth, manual effort and seed are different and separate. With the combination of these three only, plants sprout. If we sow seeds in earth, plants sprout. For sowing seeds, manual effort is required. Having land and seeds does not yield result. Therefore manual effort is necessary. There is no use of sitting idle throwing the entire burden on God. Manual effort is compulsory. God’s effort coordinates with our manual efforts. Simply putting manual efforts never yield results. God’s effort also shall coordinate.

If we help others, they help us. If we harm others, they also harm us. Therefore, all manual efforts must be intended for the welfare of the mankind and society. Then only, God also help us. For example, small fire with the help of wind, will turn into great flame. Similarly, whatever small our effort is, God’s help will be more. We light lamp with ghee. If the ghee is exhausted, lamp will diminish. Similarly, if virtues are lacking in our efforts, God never help us. They never fructify. Parasurama, Bhrigu, Bali are great people. But their efforts lack in purity. Hence God was not in their favour. Therefore, for all our efforts, God’s coordination is compulsory. Therefore, Dharmaja! for any manual effort, God’s coordination is compulsory.” said Bhishma to Dharmaja.

“O Grandsire! you said that all human beings shall act virtually. What is the benefit they derive from those virtuous acts?” asked Dharmaja.

“O Dharmaja! For each and every work, there are distinct and separate benefits. The benefit derived by offering food to a traveller is enormous. By worshipping Agni daily, we derive more benefits from our day to day acts. If he we give good and useful articles to others, whenever we are in need, such articles are obtained by us unasked for, in abundance. By performing Tapas, we get divine pleasures. By adopting non-violence, we attain good physique, strength and wealth. By observing fasting, our mind remains pure. By studying Vedas,we derive enormous pleasures. If we understand Vedas, we derive pleasures in heaven. By observing truthfulness, we attain moksha.

Therefore, Dharmaja! by doing virtuous acts, we derive good results and by doing wicked acts, we derive bad results. Whatever seeds we sow, such are the plants that grow. Even during old age, without eyesight and hearing capacity, their desires never die. The desires never leave them till they die. It is the case not only with regard to common people but also with regard to wise and learned. Everybody is a slave to his desires. They never allow the thought of discarding the desires. While acting in the outside world, virtuous deeds yield happiness and wicked deeds yield sorrows. Those who are not interested in the outside world, their deeds never yield any kind of results.” said Bhishma to Dharmaja.

“O Grandisre! What would be the behaviour of a servant towards his master?” asked Dharmaja.

“O Dharmaja! There was a hunter. He went into forest for hunting. He applies poison to the tip of his arrow and shot a deer. But that arrow hit a tree. With the power of the poison, the entire tree with flowers and fruits dried out. A parrot was living on that tree. Inspite of the tree being dried out, the parrot continued to live upon that tree, out of regard towards that tree. The parrot did not leave that tree inspite of hot son, wind, and rain.

Indra came to know about that tree. Indra came down to that parrot in the form of an ordinary man. “O parrot! this tree is dried out. There are other trees in this forest with leaves, fruits and flowers. Why are you hanging to this dry branch instead of moving to any other tree.”asked Mahendra.

“What is this Mahendra! Attaching to the tree while it was having plenty of fruits and abandoning the tree while it is dried out, is nothing but lack of gratitude.”said the parrot.

Mahendra was taken aback. “How this parrot recognised me as Indra though I am in disguise.? By virtue of its Punya during previous birth, the parrot got this power of recognising my original form.”Indra thought for himself.

“O parrot! anyhow I have come. Choose anything you like?” asked Indra.

“Bring its previous glory to this tree” asked the parrot. Indra sprinkled Amrutha on the dry tree. The dried up tree got its original form with leaves, fruits and flowers.

Therefore, O Dharmaja! that parrot, instead of choosing any thing for its own, opted for the welfare of the tree which gave her shelter all these days. That is the loyalty to be shown by servants to their masters.” said Bhishma to Dharmaja.

“O Grandsire Bhishma! what would be the regard to be shown by masters towards their servants?” asked Dharmaja.

“O Dharmaja! Brahmins, while chanting Vedas, performing tapas and teaching dharmas to one all, is worshipped throughout the universe. King worships Brahmin as wife worships her husband. Whatever Brahmin says it is true, pure and genuine. Brahmins are capable of driving even Indra into troubles if they are troubled by him. King shall regard Brahmin as his Guru and worship him as Agni. I tell you the relevant precepts from Veda.

Rigveda says that whoever insults Brahmin, all his Punyas vanish.

Yajurveda says that all the rituals viz., Japa, Homa etc shall be performed under the guidance of Brahmins.

Samaveda says that all the sins vanish if brahmins are worshipped for one month.

Adharvana Veda says that there is no greater trouble than disregarding brahmins.

In the past, Salya, King of Madra kingdom, asked Saint Vyasa: “ O Saint Vyasa! Kindly tell me which dharma is best of all and which gives more knowledge than other Dharmas?”.
Vyasa said thus: Knowing about Vishnu is best of all Dharmas. That Vishnu is no other than Sri Krishna. Once, some brahmins, to the hearing of Sri Krishna, commented thus:

“How Sri Krishna, a yadava lad, son of Vasudeva and Devaki, sister of Kamsa, is worshipped as Yajna Purusha?”.

On hearing those words, Krishna asked me to give a fitting reply. I told them thus: “Sri Krishna is embodiment of all Vedas. He likes those who knows the meaning of Vedas and who knows much about Vedas. The result of best brahminism is knowing Sri Krishna as Vishnu.” said Vyasa.

On hearing those words, all the Brahmins realised Krishna tatva.” said Veda Vyasa to King Salya, King of Madra.

O Dharmaja! I know that you know much about Krishna. I just told you to refresh your knowledge about Sri Krishna.” said Bhishma.

“O Grandisre Bhishma! It is heard that Garuda is a greatest of all. I want to know about Garuda.” asked Dharmaja.

“O Dharmaja! Kashyapa Prajapati got two wives, Vinata and Kadruva. Beholding his wives, Kashyapa asked about their desire to beget children. Kadruva desired to have 1000 sons. Vinata satisfied with two sons. Kashya blessed them with such desires. In course of time, Kadruva delivered one thousand eggs and Vinata two eggs. They preserved those eggs in mud pots.

1500 years elapsed. The eggs of Kadruva broke and one thousand serpants with mighty personalities came out. The eggs of Vinata were intact. While elder Sister Kadruva was enjoying with her sons, Vinata enraged with great wrath and jealousy. Unable to control that jealousy, Vinata by force broke one egg. A mighty bird with half body came out. His name was Aruna. His body was formed upto waist. Beholding his son with incomplete body, Vinata cried aloud.
“O mother! Had you not broken the egg in advance, a mighty personality would have come out. You deprived me of that fortune. You are influenced by jealousy and anger for which you have to reap the consequences for your fickle mind. You will become the slave of Kadruva for long time.” cursed Aruna.

Vinata trembled with motherly anguish. On one hand, son with halfbody and on the other hand slavery. She cried aloud. Aruna pitied her.

“O mom! dont cry. This is all our fate. None can avert it. Kindly dont break the second egg in hurry. After 500 years, one more son born to you with mighty personality. He may release you from this slavery.” said Aruna.

Both mother and son were waiting for the arrival of second son for five hundred years. On expiry of 500 years, the second egg broke of its own accord. A mighty personality with long neck, strong body, glorious face, reddish eyes, huge head and with beautiful wings was born like a sun rising on the east. He was Suparna (Garuda), a mighty bird. After the birth of Suparna, Aruna took leave from his mother and went to Soorya Loka to serve Sun God.

(The charioteer of Sun God is Aruna, also called as Anoora.).

From the time of his birth, Garuda didnot stay with his mother even for a moment. He was going on flying in the sky seeking food. Grandfather Brahma and other divine bodies were so affectionate towards Garuda.

After the birth of Aruna, and before the birth of Garuda, during the period of 500 years, a strange thing had happened. After the birth of Aruna, Vinata gradually forgot about the curse given by Aruna. During one spring season, Vinata and Kadruva went for a stroll to the sea shore. While they were walking leisurely, at a distance they saw a white horse called Uchaisrava, a divine horse.

Beholding that horse, Vinata said: “O sister Kadruva! look at that horse. It is pure white like pure milk.” said Vinata.

(It is the nature of some peole not to accept other’s words. Whatever be the argument, they counter it. To substantiate their argument, they go to any extent. It is their nature. Such was the nature of Kadruva.)

Immediately Kadruva countered it. “No Vinata. It is not pure white. Its tail is black” said Kadruva.

Vinata was astonished. “No Kadruva. Are you joking. The entire body of that horse is pure white. No question of even a black spot.” said Vinata.

Kadruva became adament. “No Vinata. Its tail is black. I am sure” argued Kadruva.

Vinata also was firm in her stand. “No. the horse is white, not black” affirmed Vinata.

“What is the bet?” asked Kadruva.

“Your wish. I am ready for any bet as the horse is white.” said Vinata.

“If I win the bet, you have to serve me as slave throughout your life. If you win the bet I serve you as slave.” said Kadruva.

Vinata agreed for the bet. She simply forgot the curse of her elder son.

“Now it is sunset. The visibility is poor. Let us go back and come tomorrow and observe the horse in day light.” said Kadruva, to gain time. Unable to understand the wicked plan of Kadruva, Vinata innocently agreed for it. They both went home.

In fact, Kadruva knows pretty well that the tail of horse was pure white. By some hook or crook it shall appear to be black. It was her desire. She called all her sons, the serpants. “O my sons! today, myself and Vinata saw a white horse. I bet that its tail was black, though it was white. I have to win the bet. Somehow or other, tomorrow, you have to make the tail appear to be black. said Kadruva.

Vasuki and others did not agree for the proposal. “O Mom! it is unscrupulous. We cannot do it. Yourself and Vinata are same for us. We got motherly affection towards Vinata. We cannot be trecherous towards my mother, Vinata. It is also not proper on your part also.” said Vasuki.

“No. You have to obey my command. The tail of the horse shall appear black” affirmed Kadruva.

“We prefer to leave you than be trecherous to Vinata” Vasuki replied.
“Then listen. In future, Janamejaya, grand son of Arjuna, perform Sarpa Yaga. In that Sarpa Yaga all you will perish. This is my curse for your disobeyance.” said Kadruva.

Having afraid of the curse, some of the serpant-sons fell on the feet of Kadruva. “O mom we are here. We make the tail appear black” assured those serpants. Kadruva was very happy. During the night all the black serpants went and curled round the tail of the horse, so that the tail appears to be black from a distance.

Next day morning, Kadruva and Vinata went to the sea shore and looked at the horse from a distance. The tail of the horse appeared to be black. Unable to realise the fraud played by Kadruva, Vinata agreed that the tail was black. As per the bet, Vinata became the slave of Kadruva. Vinata was waiting for the birth of Garuda.

As said earlier, the second egg broke and Garuda came out. From the date of birth, Garuda was flying in the sky in search of sufficient food.

Oneday, Saint Narada came there and told Garuda: “O Garuda! what is this! While your mother is doing slavery to Kadruva, you are flying here in search of sumptuous food. Why for your strength, vigour and valour? Your vigour and valour, not useful for releasing your mother from slavery, is waste.” said Narada.

Garuda was astonished. “What! is my mother a slave to Kadruva? What is the reason for my mother undergoing slavery? Kindly tell me.” requested Garuda.

Narada told Garuda what happened and the fraud played by Kadruva. Gruda was enraged with great wrath.
“My mother is slave. I have to save her and release her.” thought Garuda.

Garuda went to his mother and saluted her. Then he went to Kadruva and said: “O mother Kadruva! do you feel it great to have my mother as your slave? Kindly release my mother from slavery and be kind towards us. O mother Kadruva! you got 1000 sons. Treat me also as one of your sons. Atleast for my sake, release my mother from slavery. I feel happy.” said Garuda.

“O Garuda! I have no objection to release your mother from slavery but on one condition. You bring Amruta vessel from Svarga. I release your mother.” said Kadruva.

“O mother Kadruva! Be on your word. Now itself, I am proceeding to bring Amruta vessel.” said Garuda.

Garuda went to his father and explained him about his conversation with Kadruva. “O father! bless me and wish me to bring Amruta vessel from heaven”saluted Garuda before his father.

Kashyapa blessed his son, Garuda. “O Garuda! Your intention is good but it is very difficult. Indra kept Amruta vessel in a secret place safely. Even divine bodies do not know about it. I heard that Indra kept it in a big iron mesh, amidst huge flames, guarded by able bodied Asuras.” said Kashyapa.

“O father! out of affection towards me, you are telling like that. I got extraordinary physique. Nothing is impossible for me. I certainly bring Amruta vessel.” said Garuda firmly.

Kashyapa was very happy for the bravery of his son. “O my son! To achieve this task, you require enormous strength. On the way to heaven, you find one elephant and one tortoise. They are meant for you. You eat both of them and get enormous energy. Your task will successfully be accomplished.” blessed Kashyapa.

“O father! kindly tell me where they are?” asked Garuda.

“O my son! near the eastern sea, there is a tall mountain called Uraga. Near that mountain there is a tank. There is a tortoise living in that tank. One elephant daily goes to that tank to drink pure water. Always the tortoise picks up quarrel with elephant on some pretext or other. In their previous birth, the tortoise and elephant were two Rakshasas called Madhu and Kaitabha. As they do not know about their previous births, they were fighting as enemies. While catching them you have to be more skilful.You have to catch both of them at a time.” said Kashyapa.

“How is it? Tortoise is in water whereas elephant is on land.” asked Garuda.

“You have to use your own skill. While elephant drinks water, tortoise comes out of water to catch elephant. At that time, you have to catch them at a time skilfully.”said Kashyapa.

Garuda saluted Kashya and flew away to the tank. Garuda transformed himself into a small bird and was waiting for the arrival of elephant. Meanwhile, elephant arrived there and was about to drink water.

“You cannot drink water. This tank is mine” cried tortoise aloud. Elephant pressed the tortoise under its feet. Tortoise came out of the tank and caught the legs of elephant tightly. Elephant thrashed tortoise with its trunk. There was a fiercest fight between tortoise and elephant. Tortoise was enraged with great wrath. It came fully out of waters and caught both the feet of elephant.

Awaiting for this opportunity, Garuda resumed his original form and caught both elephant and tortoise with his claws and flew into the sky. Both elephant and tortoise lost consciousness with this unexpected happening. While flying, carrying both elephant and tortoise, Garuda saw a huge tree, branches of which are spread over five yojanas. Garuda tried to sit on one of the branches. But due to the heavy weight of Garuda coupled with the weights of elephant and tortoise, that branch was broken with thunderous sound. Beholding that some Valakhilya saints were hanging to that branch, Garuda hurriedly caught that branch with his nose and again began to fly in the sky.

The saints were astonished for the devotion of Garuda towards them. Garuda slowly dropped those saints on the ground safely and threw the huge branch in Kulinda kingdom which has already been tainted with immoral and illegal activities, killing the entire population in that kingdom. Then Garuda landed on a flat peak of a huge mountain and ate the elephant and tortoise. As per the words of his father, he got enormous strength. Garuda flew towards heaven and reached the place where the Amruta vessel was kept.

Around the Amruta vessel, huge flames were raising into the sky and Garuda was unable to reach that spot, with the fear that his wings be burnt away. Garuda flew to his Grandfather, Brahma and requested him to show way out. As per the advise of Brahma, Garuda brought huge quanties of butter and threw it into the flames. The flames subsided and completely extinguished. Garuda killed the Rakshasas guarding the Amrutha vessel and tried to carry the Amrutha vessel to his place.

On the way, Devendra attacked Garuda with his Vajruyudha but in vain. Devendra could not stand before the vigour and valour of Garuda and returned back. Garuda flew back to his place with Amrutha vessel.

Beholding Kadruva, Garuda said: “O mother Kadruva! I brought Amrutha vessel. Kindly release my mother from slavery.” requested Garuda.

Beholding Amrutha Vessel, Kadruva was overjoyed. “Yes. Garuda! Your mother is freed from my slavery. She can go as she likes.” proclaimed Kadruva in the presence of one and all.

Vinata came to his son Garuda. Garuda was about to leave that place along with his mother.

“O Garuda my son! Give me the Amrutha vessel, brought by you.” hurriedly asked Kadruva.

“O mother Kadruva! Kindly remember what you told me. You asked me to bring Amrutha vessel only. I brought it. You freed my mother from slavery. It is over. I did not say that I will give Amrutha vessel to you.” so saying Garuda flew away along with his mother and Amrutha vessel.

Garuda went back to heaven and handed over Amrutha vessel to Devendra and prayed excuse. In the presence of all divine bodies and sages, Garuda said:

“O Divine bodies! Kadruva played fraud upon my mother and made my mother as her slave. In order to liberate my mother from slavery, I have taken Amrutha vessel by force. As my work is finished, I am returning Amrutha vessel safely to you. Kindly treat me as your friend and excuse me.”

Everybody appreciated Garuda and excused him. Garuda was burning with great anger. “O Devendra! These snakes and serpants are the cause for my mother’s slavery. Hence, from today onwards, snakes are the food for eagles and other similar birds. We kill them on sight and consume them.” proclaimed Garuda.

Everybody acclaimed Garuda’s words and requested Devendra to give Garuda a boon. “I am too small to give Garuda any boon. Garuda is the incarnation of Vishnu. In the coming years, Garuda will born as Sri Krishna to instal dharma.” said Devendra.

Therefore, O Dharmaja! Sri Krishna standing by your side is no other than Garuda.” said Bhishma.

“O Grandsire Bhishma! I am entertaining another doubt. If anybody evades to pay or give anything, which he promised to pay or give, to a Brahmin, what would be his fate?” asked Dharmaja.

“O Dharmaja! In this connection, I narrate a story in reply to your question. In a forest, there lived a fox and monkey. They are friends. One day monkey told fox:

“O friend! I do not know which sin you have committed in your past birth, you are consuming dead bodies in this birth?” said monkey.

Miraculously, fox got its rememberances of its previous birth. “O friend! in my previous birth, I promised a brahmin to give some money. But I evaded to pay. Hence I have taken this birth and consuming dead bodies.” said fox.

Therefore, O Dharmaja! that was the effect of evasion.” said Bhishma.

“O Grandisre! Is it against Dharma to teach Veda and other Sastras to a person who was endowed with good qualities and virtuous behaviour but born in lower caste.”asked Dharmaja.

“O Dharmaja! in this connection, a story will clear your doubt. Listen. Several virtuous brahmins were performing tapas on Himalayas. One day, a sudra who was virtuous with righteous qualities and good behaviour approached them.

“O Brahmins! you are performing tapas. Kindly tell me how to perform tapas and the procedure to be followed toperform tapas.” asked Sudra.

“O virtuous man! you are a Sudra born in lower caste. It is not proper on our part to teach Vaidika Vidya to you. You are fit to serve us but not to perform tapas.” said the brahmins.

Sudra lived there serving those brahmins. But daily he was observing the daily procedure adopted by Brahmins and he also began to adopt the same procedure to perform tapas.

One day, the chief priest who was guiding those brahmins came to the hut of Sudra. The chief priest was pleased with his behaviour and the rituals he was performing daily. The chief priest taught him the lapses in his rituals and guided him properly to perform all vedic rituals. Sudra also devotedly followed the chief priest and was performing vedic rituals in right manner.

In course of time, both Sudra and the chief priest died. In next birth, Sudra was born as the son of a King and the chief priest was born as the son of a virtuous brahmin, studying Vedas. Later, the chief priest born in a virtuous brahmin family became the chief priest of the King and he was serving the son of that King who was Sudra in his previous birth.

Beholding the Brahmin who was serving him as a chief priest, the son of the King was smiling. The brahmin could not understand the reason for his smiling. One day, the brahmin asked the King:

“O King! why you are smiling while looking at me. Is there any fault on my part in performing vedic rituals?” asked the brahmin.

“O virtuous brahmin! fortunately, I got the knowledge of my previous birth. In my last birth, I was a Sudra and you taught me the skills in Vedic rituals. As a result, you are now born as a Purohit to serve a king. Hence I am smiling at you.” said the King.

Therefore, O Dharmaja! Vedic rituals and mantras and trantras shall be taught to Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas that too, to those who are eligible to learn.” said Bhishma.

“O Grandsire Bhishma! there are several persons in this world. But with whom Goddess Lakshmi lives?” asked Dharmaja.

“O Dharmaja! Once Rukmini asked Lakshmi the same question. Lakshmi answered that question. The same answer clears your doubt.

“Lakshmi lives in the abodes the following persons: Those who are truthful; who observe cleanliness; who have devotion towards their teachers; who are vigilant and careful always; who perform their duties with highest concentration and devotion; who are pure in mind; who perform virtus deeds always; who are wise and learned; who perform tapas; who gives away to others what they have; who observe Brahmacharya; who control their sense organs. These are all eligible for my blessings. I like to stay always with them.

I never stay with those who are cruel, non-believers of God and Vedas, who are ungrateful, and who are wicked and wretch.

With regard to ladies, I stay with those who keep their house, household utensils clean and neat and those who do not consume food eaten by others.

I never stay with the ladies who oppose their husbands alwlays; who accuse others always; who are inclined to join males other than husband and those who are drowsy always.

Besides the above, I always stay in Lotus flowers, flower gardens, fruit bearing trees and flower bearing plants.” said Lakshmi to Rukini.

O Dharmaja! the same answer is an answer to your question also.” said Bhishma.

“O Grandisre” Can I ask you an irritable question. During sexual intercourse, who enjoys much, either male or female.?” asked Dharmaja.

(In fact, this quetion is irrelevant because Bhishma remained unmarried throughout his life. How can he answer this question? But Bhishma appeared to have got over this situation by narratring another story.)

“O Dharmaja! In the past, there was a king called Bhangaswa. He was issueless. He performed yajna without the permission of Indra, which was a prerequisite. As a result of yajna, Bringaswa begot one hundred sons. He was happy. But Indra bore grudge upon Bhringasva for performing Yajna without his permission.

One day Bhringasva went into forest for hunting. He lost his way due to the influence of Indra. Bhringasva was thirsty. He drank water in a nearby pond. Strangely, he was transformed into a lady. He was very much annoyed for this unwanted ladyhood. “How can I go back to city as a lady ? What my citizens, my wife and children think about me? On the other hand, I cannot even remain in this forest.” thought Bhringasva.

At last he went back to the city and called for a metting of his ministers and discussed the matter at length. On their advice, he got his elder son enthroned as King of his Kingdom. Bhringasva, in lady form, went back to forests. He was living in the forest along with other sages and saints.

One young saint fell in love with Bhringasva and married her and begot 100 sons. Bhringasva took his hundred sons and went back to his kingdom and told his former sons about his marriage and begetting hundred sons. All the two hundred sons of Bhringasva were living happily, enjoying royal pleasures.

Devendra could not tolerate this situation. He wanted to create rifts between the sons of Bhringasva. Devendra approached the former sons of Bhringasva and spoiled their minds and created ill feelings between them. All the two hundred sons quarrelled with each other and died. Bhringasva was lamenting for the death of all his sons. Indra, in disguise, appeared before him.

“O Bhringasva! what happened? why are you weeping?” asked Indra. Bhringasva told Indra right from his going to forest for hunting till all his sons died by quarrelling with each other.

Then Indra appeared in his original form. “You performed Yajna without my permission. Hence all these troubles are created by me.” said Indra.

“O Indra! By mistake, I did not obtain your permission for performing Yajna. But you are the chief of divine bodies. Is it proper on your part to behave like this? Kindly excuse me and save me.” prayed Bhringasva.

“O King! I can bring back some of your sons alive. Choose among your sons, either your sons begot by you while you were Bhringasva or your sons begot by you while you were lady.” asked Indra.

“O Indra! Kindly make my sons, begot by me while I was a lady, alive.

Indra was astonished. “Why dont you choose your former sons ? Are they not your sons? ” asked Indra.

“Yes they are also my sons, but begot by me while I was male. But I am a mother to my later sons. Mother’s love is greater than fatherly affection.” said Bhringasva.

Indra was very much satisfied with his reply. “O Bhringasva! I give life to all your two hundred sons. Besides that, I restore your manhood also. You are no more a female.” said Indra.

“No Indra! I prefer to remain as a female than male.” said Bhringasva.
“What is this Bhringasva! originally you are a male. Why you prefer to remain as female?” asked Indra.

Feeling shy, Bhringasva said: “Indra! you are a male. You do not know the mind of female. Ladies derive more pleasure in sexual intercourse than males. I dont want to be deprived of that sexual pleasure. Hence I prefer to remain as female.” said Bhringasva.

Devendra smiled and blessed Bhringasva as a female.

“O Dharmaja! you got an answer to your question” said Bhishma.

“O Grandisre Bhishma! though you are on arrow bed, you have been giving replies to my questions patiently. I heard so many dharmas from your mouth. But will they prevent birth and death and also the sufferings caused from birth and death. I cannot take births and deaths from time time, and travel constantly from womb to tomb. O Grandisre! will there by any difference from hell and the womb. This world itself is temporary. I behold this world as a poison. I hate this kingdom and samsara. Kindly teach me about Vaishnava Dharma to attain liberation. Nowadays, even according to Bhagavan Veda Vyasa, we cannot find Vaishnava Dharma in any corner of this world. Hence I am asking you. Kindly teach me about Vaishnava Dharma.”asked Dharmaja.

“O Dharmaja! are you mad. You have fought 18 days, killed all your enemies and conquered this Kingdom. Instead of enjoying the royal pleasures, you are talking like a Sanyasi. Kshatriya youths shall not speak like this. You are speaking like Janaka, king of Midhila. Ofcourse, you can derive eternal happiness from liberation. But nobody describes about it. It is beyond the concept of Jeeva.
There are several Praktitis but Akriti is one. Though Akriti transforms into several Jeevaatmas, it shall not change its original character and will not forget its original form. Path of samsara appears to be so easy to reach. The path of liberation is covered with desires. Therefore one has to lead his life adopting Satva, abandoning Kama and Krodha. This is called Vaishnava Dharma. You also follow this Dharma. Leave the fear of Samsara and proced towards liberation.” said Bishma.

“O Bhishma! Kindly explain me about Paramatma who is the basis for all Tatvas, adhyatmas, adhibhootas, adhidaivas.” asked Dharmaja.

“O Dharmaja! Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatkumara, Sanatsujata are Brahma Manasa Putras. Also Vasishta, Sankara are also Brahma Manasa Putras. Besides the above, Marichi, Bhrigu,Angirasa,Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha and Kratu are also the sons of Brahma. Of these, Sanatsujata is of the scale of our thumb. He always burns like fire and moves constantly.

Once, Narada met Sanatsujata on Meru Mountain. At that time, Narada also asked Sanatsujata the same question. I will tell you the reply given by Sanatsujata.

Ten thousand Yugas is one night, and another ten thousand Yugas are day for Vishnu. While Vishnu is in his original form, he is called Avyakta. Vishnu sleeps in nights and does creation during day time. Vishnu created Brahma and made him in charge of creation. Brahma was influenced by Ahankara. Hence, mind, sense organs, intellect and five elements were created. The five elements are sky, air, fire, water and earth. Their attributes are sound, touch, form, taste, smell respectively. Later, divine bodies, sages and saings, Rakshasas, Gandharvas, kinnaras, Naras, all animals etc. were created. All this creation was influenced by Ahankara. The entire creation is subject to births and deaths. All the living beings created by Brahma are experiencing good and bad created by Vishnu.

Five elements, five attributes, ten sense organs, one Mahat Tatva, Ahankara, mind and intellect are 24 tatvas in total. Now I will explain about Adhyatma etc.

If ear is Adhyatma, sound is Adhiboota and sides are Adhi daivatas.

If skin is Adhyatma, touch is adhibhoota and air is Adhi Daivata.

If eyes are Adhyatma, form is adhobhoota and sun is Adhidaivata.

If tongue is Adhyatma, taste is Adhibhoota and water is Adhidaivata.

If nose is Adhyatma, smell is Adhibhoota and earth is Adhidaivata.

Legs, anus, genital organ, hands, mouth, sense organs are Adhyatmakas. Walking, easing, sensual pleasure, working, taking are Adhibhootas respectively. Vishnu, Sun, Brahma, Indra, Agni are Adhidaivatas, respectively.

Ahankara, mind and intellect are Adhyatmakas. self-conceit, intention, determination are Adhidaivatas. Intelligence, Moon and Brahma are Adhidaivatas.

All these according to Veda. All these elements are created and destroyed by Vishnu.

Nature is Avyakta. If manual effort is added, nature stimulates and the entire world runs with splendour and glory. Vishnu is the basis for the entire creation. With the permission of Parama Siva, Brahma runs the birth and death cycle.” said Sanatsujata to Narada. I hope this is the answer to your question.

Dharmaja! The origin for the entire creation is the 25th attribute, i.e., Paramatma. He is immortal and endless. He always lives in the hearts of Yogis. He is Vishnu, second to none, without desires. He is Parama Atma.” said Bhishma.

“O Grandisre Bhishma! I heard that Virtuous people unite themselves with Agni. How such people think about Paramatma?” asked Dharmaja.

“O Dharmnaja! while Milky Ocean was churned, Amrutha came out. Divine bodies and Danavas fought for Amrutha. Divine bodies were defeated by Danavas. Divine bodies approached Brahma. Meanwhile, the following words are heard from sky:

“I am coming to help you” .

Vishnu, armed with Chakra (Disc weapon) and Mace, riding on Garuda, rushed against Danavas for war. Vishnu defeated Asuras and disappeared. Divine bodies were astonished. They asked Brahma: “Who is this glorious personality?” Brahma said: “He is called Vishnu. He stays in Vaikuntha. I also donot know how Vishnu lookes like. Hence I have no capacity to explain how Vishnu looks like. But I tell you story about Vishnu.

Once, on Himalayas, sages and saints, and Sidhas were sitting and discussing about Vishnu. Meanwhile Garuda arrived there. Gruda saluted them and sat there.

“Garuda! we would like to ask you ne thing?” said those sages.

“I am blessed. Kindly ask your doubt. I explain to the extent I know.” said Garuda.

“Garuda! you are the staunch devotee of Vishnu. Vishnu likes his devotees. You always stay with Vishnu. Kindly tell me about Vishnu Tatva?” asked those sages and saints.

“O Sages and Saints! I know that Vishnu protects these three regions. That much I know. That does not mean that I know everything about Vishnu. Not only you and me, none else knows about Vishnu Tatva. We just hear the stories about Vishnu.

When I conquered Devendra and was carrying Amrutha vessel, some words are heard from the sky: “O Garuda! I appreviate your valour. Ask any thing” .

I turned that side and said: “I do not know who are you. You are blessing me with boons. Kindly reveal yourself and then bless me.”

Again the following word are heard: “In course of time, you know about me. From today, you are my carrier. You will not have diseases or death. You conquer Asuras” said a splendid form standing before me.

I saluted that splendid form. “O revered self! I will be your carrier. But I desire to be the flag on your chariot. Kindly bless me with this boon.” I requested. “Let it be done”. So saying that splendid form disappeared. I was very much astonished.

I went to my father, Kashyapa and told him what had happened. “O my son Garuda! That spelendid form is no other than Vishnu. Vishnu was kind enough to talk to you. To behold Vishnu, I did penance for so many years and remained in Yoga Samadhi.. He showed his Viswaroopa with so many forms and said:

“Kashyapa! You are still having several desires in your mind. With desires in mind, none can see me. Whenever you discard all your desires, you can see me” said Vishnu.

You are so fortunate to serve Vishnu. You immediately go to Badarika Ashram and serve Narayana there.” said Kashyapa.

Then I went to Badarika Ashram. There I found a glorious personality. I saluted him. He was wearing yellow clothes, with eight arms, armed with conche, disc, mace etc. I recognised that form as Narayana. Beholding me, that Narayana said: “Have you come! Come along with me” so saying he proceeded towards north. I followed him.

We travelled thousands of Yojanas. There I found burning fire without any fuel. Narayana entered into those flames. I followed him. There I found MahaSiva along with Parvati doing penance. Narayana was proceeding further. I followed him. There I found complete darkness. I could not see anything.

“Come this side” I heard some voice. I proceeded towards that direction. There I found some light. Slowly the darkness disappeared. The sun was shining brightly. Nice music was heard. There I found ponds with lotus flowers. Beautiful ladies and handsome men were worshpping Narayana. Narayana was proceeding further. I followed him. But I could not bear that magnificent light and heat. I loudly called “O God!”. Narayana looked back

“O son of Vinata! I never forget you. Dont fear. Come along with me. Dont feel that you have not seen me. Only those who have discarded all loves and affections, egoism and vanity, and those who have concentrated and undisturbed mind can alone see me. As you have devotion and concentration upon me, you could only look at my outer form.” said Narayana.

Then Narayana flew into the sky. I also followed him. I could not find Narayana there. “Come here” I heard some sound. I proceeded towards that sound. There I found one pond with lotus flowers. White swans were floating in that pond. Narayana was taking bath in that pond. I went near the pond. Narayana disappeared. There I heard voices of Veda chanting. Hundred of eagles were flying in the sky and surrounded me. I was afraid. I cried aloud:

“O Achuyta! Siva! Sahasraksha! Vedamaya! Anaadi Nidhanaa! Tribhuvanaika Naadhaa! Tri Nayanaa! Govindaa! Padmanaabhaa! Haraa! Krupaavidheyaa!” I began to pray God. Narayana appeared before me.

“O son of Vinata! Done be afraid.” He patted on my shoulder. My fear subsided. I opened my eyes. I was astonished. I was in Badarika Ashram. None were there. I realised that everything I experienced is nothing but Vishnu Maya. My body trembled. Narayana with eight hands appeared before. I prostrated before Narayana.

“O God Narayana! I serve your feet always. If I am eligible to hear about your miralces, Kindly tell me.” I prayed Narayana. “O son of Vinata! Even divine bodies, Gandharvas, Danujas could not even imagine about my original form. The entire creation is within me. They born, grow and die within me. Similarly, I also stay in each and every creature. To know about me, Jeevatma shall be turned towards me (Paramatma). To achieve that, one should discard desires, egoism, anger, and habit of receiving from others. One should observe nonviolance and keep his mind pure and be contented always. To such people, I am always visible.

Even if sankhya is studied, those who do not discard connection with worldly affairs, those who do not have determinate mind, they cannot see me. Being endowed with loves and passions, even if they perform Poojas, Vratas, fastings with pomp and show, I never look at them. To those who think about me with concentrated mind, I am always visible. I am always visible to those who are not influenced by Rajas and Tamas and who always observe Satva.

I am divided into four forms viz., Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Anirudha and I express myself in all beings like Atma, intellect, egoism and mind respectively. This is my outer form. Therefore, first you know about me, think about me with pure mind and devotion and try to realise my original form.” said Narayana.

In this manner, Garuda told other sages and saints and Sidhas about Vishnu Tatva. All of them acclaimed Garuda for having taught them about Vishnu Tatva.” This is all about Vishnu Tatva” said Brahma to divine bodies.

O Dharmaja! this conversion was first told by Brahma to Vasuvus. I heard this conversion while Vasuvus were telling to my mother, Ganga. Now I told you the same.
O Dharmaja! For those who discard all intentions done thorugh mind, installing Agni in Atman, discarding all bondages with outside world, and thinking about Vishnu through innerself, liberation is effortless.” said Bhishma to Dharmaja, as told by Vaisampayana to Janamejaya, the story of Maha Bharata.

Maha Bharata
Anusasanika Parva
First chapter completed.
Om Tatsat Om Tatsat Om Tatsat.